investigation,es

2015

108. Carrera-Naipil, C., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. Antonio Valdes, J., Molina, A. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2016). RNA interference in Haliotis rufescens myostatin evidences upregulation of insulin signaling pathway. AgriGene. Accepted.

107. Núñez-Acuña, G., Pino-Marambio, J., Wadsworth, S., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2016). Antimicrobial peptides from Salmon salar skin induce frontal filament development and olfactory/cuticle-related genes in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Aquaculture DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.06.023.

106. Boltaña, S., Chávez-Mardones, J., V. Valenzuela-Muñoz & Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2016. Evidence for the induction of key components of the Notch signaling pathway via deltamethrin and azamethiphos treatment in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. International Journal of Molecular Science. 17, 304; doi:10.3390/ijms17050304.

105. Farlora, R., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Chávez-Mardones, J. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2016). Aquaporin family genes exhibit developmentally-regulated and host-dependent transcription patterns in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Gene. Gene 585(1): 119-127. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2016.03.03.

104. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Bouniot, C., Boltaña, S., Nuñez-Acuña, G., Valenzuela-Miranda, D. (2015). Transcriptomic of iron metabolism from Atlantic and Coho salmon uncovers specie-specific gene expression patterns during the infection with the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi. BMC Genomics. Submitted.

103. Nuñez-Acuña, G., Boltaña, S., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2016). Pesticides drive stochastic chemosensory system expression in a marine ectoparasite. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17(700):1-14. DOI: 10.3390/ijms17060700.

102. Boltaña, S., Valenzuela-Miranda, D., Aguilar, A., Mackenzie, S., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2016). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) dynamics evidence immunomodulation during ISAV-Infected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Scientific Report. 6:22698. DOI: 10.1038/srep22698.

101. Aedo, J., Maldonado, J., Aballai, V., Estrada, J. M., Bastias, M., Meneses, Gallardo-Escárate, C., Silva, H., Molina, A., Valdes, J. A. (2015). mRNA-seq reveals skeletal muscle atrophy in response to handling stress in a marine teleost, the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis). BMC Genomics. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-2232-7.

100. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2016). Transcriptome mining: multigene panel to test delousing drug response in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Marine Genomics. DOI: 10.1016/j.margen.2015.12.005.

99. Chávez-Mardones, J. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2015). Next-generation transcriptome profiling from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi exposed to Deltamethrin (AlphaMaxTM). Marine Biotechnology. DOI: 10.1007/s10126-015-9661-9.

98. Farlora, R., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., G. Nuñez-Acuña & C. Gallardo-Escárate (2015). Prohibitin-2 gene reveals sex-related differences in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Gene. Doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.03.045.

97.Maldonado-Aguayo, W., Chávez-Mardones, J., A. T. Gonçalves & C. Gallardo-Escárate. 2015. Cathepsin gene family reveals transcriptome patterns related to the infective stages of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. PlosOne. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123954.

96. Astuya, A., Carrera, C., Ulloa, V., Aballay, A., Avello, V., Nuñez-Acuña, G., Hégaret, H., C. Gallardo-Escárate. 2015. Saxitoxin modulates immunological parameters and gene transcription in Mytilus chilensis hemocytes. International Journal of Molecular Science. Doi:10.3390/ijms160x000x.

95. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Sturm, A. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2015). Transcriptome insights into ABC transporter gene family from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Parasites & Vectors. DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0801-x.

94.Valenzuela-Miranda, D., Cabrejos, M. E., Cisterna, D., Yañez, J.M., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2015). High-throughput transcriptome analysis of ISAV-infected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar unravels divergent immune responses associated to head-kidney, liver and gills tissues. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.04.003.

93. Farlora, R, Valenzuela-Miranda D, and Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2014). Identification of miRNAs associated with sexual maturity in rainbow trout brain and testis through small RNA deep sequencing. Molecular Reproduction and Development. Doi: DOI 10.1002/mrd.22499.

92. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Chávez-Mardones, J. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2015). RNA-Seq analysis evidences a multiple gene responses in Caligus rogercresseyi exposed to organophosphate Azamethiphos. Aquaculture. Doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.05.011.

91. Tapia. F & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2015). Spatio-temporal transcriptome analysis in the marine snail Tegula atra along central-northern Chile (28-31°S). Marine Genomics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margen.2015.05.005.

90. Valenzuela-Miranda, D., Del Rio-Portilla, M. A & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2015). Characterization of the growth-related transcriptome in California red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) through RNA-Seq analysis. Marine Genomics. 10.1016/j.margen.2015.05.009.

89. Chávez-Mardones, J., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2015). In silico transcriptome analysis of cuticle-related genes associated with delousing drug responses in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Aquaculture. 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.07.017.

88. Núñez-Acuña, G., Gonçalves, A. T., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Marambio, JP., Wadsworth, S., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2015). Transcriptome immunomodulation of in-feed additives in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infected with sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. Submitted.

87. Maldonado-Aguayo. W, Valenzuela-Miranda. D and Gallardo-Escárate. C. 2014. Caligus rogercresseyi serine proteases: Transcriptomic analysis during the drug metabolism response of sea lice. Pest and management Science. Accepted.

86. Chávez-Mardones, J., V. Valenzuela-Muñoz & Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2015. Evidence for the induction of key components of the Notch signaling pathway via deltamethrin and azamethiphos treatment in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part D. Submitted.

85. Núñez-Acuña, G., Vera-Bizama, F., Boltaña, S., Hawes, C., Pino-Marambio, J., Wadsworth, S & Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2015. Sea louse ionotropic receptors genes from Caligus rogercresseyi are modulated through in-feed additives: a comparative analysis in two host salmon species. Aquaculture. Submitted.

84. Chávez-Mardones, J., Gladys Ascencio, Susana Latuz & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Hydrogen peroxide modulates antioxidant system transcription, evidencing sex-dependent responses in Caligus rogercresseyi. Aquaculture. Submitted.

83. Jara-Toro, S., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Gonçalves, AT. 2015. Functional diets increase the early response to salinity stress in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture Research. Submitted.

82. Gonçalves, A. T., Futami, K., Katagiri, T., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Endo, M., Maita, M., (2014). Probiotic prophylaxis improves growth performance and modulates physiological response in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture Research. Accepted.

81. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Hawes, C., Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2015. Toll-like receptors from Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus kisutch: Comparative transcriptome analysis and responses to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Developmental Comparative Immunology. Submitted.

80. Vera-Bizama, F., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Gonçalves, AT., Pino-Marambio, J., Hawes, C., Wadsworth, S., Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2015. Transcription expression of immune-related genes from Caligus rogercresseyi, evidences time-dependent patterns on infected Atlantic and Coho salmon. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. Submitted.

79. Pereira-Torres, D., Gonçalves, AT., Ulloa, V., Martínez, R., Carrasco, H., Olea, AF., Espinoza. L., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Astuya, A. 2015. In vitro effects of Drimys winteri bark extract and the active compound polygodial on the expression of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) immune genes after exposure to Saprolegnia parasitica. Journal of Fish Disease. Submitted.

78. Retamales, A., Zuloaga, R., Valenzuela, C. A., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Molina, A., Valdes, JA. 2015. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.07.018.

2014

77. Farlora, R., Araya-Garay, J. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2014). Discovery of sex-related genes by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Marine Genomics. Doi: 10.1016/j.margen.2014.02.005.

76. Maldonado-Aguayo, W. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2014). Identification and expression of antioxidant and immune defense genes in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. Marine Genomics. Doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.12.006.

75. Núñez-Acuña, G., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Marambio, JP., Wadsworth, S., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2014). Insights into the olfactory system in the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi: Molecular characterization and gene transcription analysis of novel ionotropic receptors. Experimental parasitology. Doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2014.08.003.

74. Chávez-Mardones, J. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2014). Immune response of apoptosis-related cysteine peptidases from red abalone Haliotis rufescens (HrCas8 and HrCas3): molecular characterization and transcription expression. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. Doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2014.04.027.

73. Aedo J.E., Maldonado J., Estrada J.M., Fuentes E.N., Silva H., Gallardo-Escárate C., Molina A., Valdés J.A. 2014. Sequencing and De novo assembly of the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) transcriptome. Marine Genomics. DOI: 10.1016/j.margen.2014.08.001.

72. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. Araya-Garay, J. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2014). Transcription expression of Myostatin and Activin receptor type II evidences association with differential growth rate in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Gastropoda: Haliotidae). Journal Molluscan Studies. Submitted.

71. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. Peña, A. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2014). Assessment of transcription expression for candidate genes related to antiparasitic resistance in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Copepoda: Caligidae). PlosOne. Submitted.

70. Maldonado-Aguayo, W. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2014). A galectin with quadruple-domain from red abalone Haliotis rufescens involved in the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. Doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2014.06.013.

69. Valenzuela-Miranda, D., Cabrejos, M. E., Yañez, J. M., C. Gallardo-Escárate. (2014). From a viral perspective: Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) transcriptome during the infective process in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Marine Genomics. Doi: 10.1016/j.margen.2014.12.007.

68. Chovar-Vera, O., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2014). Molecular characterization of Collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Fish and Shellfish Immunology. Doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2014.11.007.

67. Chávez-Mardones, J. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2014). Next-generation transcriptome profiling from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi exposed to Deltamethrin (AlphaMaxTM). Marine Genomics. Accepted.

66. López-Landavery, E., Portillo-López, A., C. Gallardo-Escárate & M. A. Del Rio Portillo. 2014. Selection of reference genes as internal controls for gene expression in tissues of red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda; Swainson, 1822). Gene. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.08.002.

65. 72. Fuentes-Navarrete, M., Gomez-Uchida, D., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Canales-Aguirre, C., R. Galleguillos & J. Carlos Ortiz. Development of microsatellites for Southern Darwin’s frog Rhinoderma darwinii (Dume´ril & Bibron, 1841). Conservation Genetics Resources. Doi: 10.1007/s12686-014-0279-4.

64. Valenzuela-Miranda, D., Nuñez-Acuña, G., V. Valenzuela-Muñoz & C. Gallardo-Escárate. 2014. MiRNA biogenesis pathway from the salmon louse (Caligus rogercresseyi): emerging role in delousing drug response. Marine Genomics. Doi:10.1016/j.gene.2014.11.008.

63. Correa, K., Filp, M., Cisterna, D., Cabrejos, M.E., Gallardo-Escárate, C & J. M. Yáñez, 2014. Effect of triploidy in the expression of immune-related genes in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum) infected with Piscirickettsia salmonis. Aquaculture Research. Doi:10.1111/are.12584.

62. Valenzuela-Miranda, D., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., R. Farlora & G. Gajardo. 2014. Sex-dependent transcriptome analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Marine Genomics. Doi: 10.1016/j.margen.2014.10.007.

61.Núñez-Acuña, G and C. Gallardo-Escárate. 2014. Two novel male-associated peroxinectin genes are downregulated by exposure to delousing drugs in Caligus rogercresseyi. Gene. Doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.12.006.

60. Haye, P. and C. Gallardo-Escárate. 2014. Transcriptome characterization of the ascidian Pyura chilensis using 454-Pyrosequencing. Marine Genomics. Accepted. Doi: 10.1016/j.margen.2014.12.002.

2013

59. Gallardo-Escárate. C., Núñez-Acuña, G. & Aguilar-Espinoza, A. (2013). SNP discovery from transcriptome sequencing in Concholepas concholepas and validation using high resolution melting analysis. Conservation Genetics Resources. Doi: 10.1007/s12686-013-9968-7.

58. Alarcón-Matus, P., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. and Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2013). Modulation of insulin-like receptor gene (MdIR) in response to feeding in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium. Journal Molluscan Studies. Doi: 10.1093/mollus/eyu050.

57. Morales-Collío, K., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. and Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2013). Myostatin gene in the northern Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus (ApMSTN) reveals differences between wild and hatchery-bred populations. Journal Molluscan Studies. Doi:10.1093/mollus/eyu005.

56. Núñez-Acuña, G. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2013). Myostatine gene in Mytilus chilensis evidences high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression. Gene. Doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.11.067.

55. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2013). Molecular cloning and expression of IRAK-4, IL-17 and I-B genes in Haliotis rufescens challenged to Vibrio anguillarum, Journal of Fish and Shellfish Immunology. Doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.12.015.

54. Chávez-Mardones, J. & Gallardo-Escárate., C. (2013). Discovery of immune-related genes in the marine snail Concholepas concholepas by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Marine Genomics. Submitted.

53. Gallardo-Escárate., C. and Núñez-Acuña, G. (2013). RNA-seq analysis reveals a complex immune response against saxitoxin in the mussel Mytilus chilensis. PlosOne. Submitted.

52. Núñez-Acuña, G. & Gallardo-Escárate., C. (2013). High-throughput transcriptome sequencing for SNPs discovery associated to immune-relevant genes in the mussel Mytilus chilensis. Journal of Fish and Shellfish Immunology. Doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.09.028.

51. Gallardo-Escárate. C., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Núñez-Acuña, G. (2013). RNA-seq analysis using de novo assembled transcriptome from salmon lice Caligus rogercresseyi. PlosOne. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092239.

50. Gallardo-Escárate. C., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Núñez-Acuña, G., Chávez-Mardones, J., Maldonado-Aguayo, W. (2013). Transcriptome analysis of couch potato (CPO) protein reveals expression pattern associated to early development in salmon lice Caligus rogercresseyi. Gene. Doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.11.100.

49. Núñez-Acuña, G. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2013). High-throughput SNP discovery and transcriptome expression profiles from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Copepoda: Caligidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D. Doi: 10.1016/j.cbd.2014.01.003.

48. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2013). Caligus rogercresseyi P-glycoprotein gene (Cr-Pgp): Molecular characterization and transcription analysis associated to pyrethroid resistance. Aquaculture Research and Development. Doi: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000236.

47. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2013). TLR and IMD signaling pathways from Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda): In silico gene expression and SNPs discovery. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. Doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.12.019.

46. Chávez-Mardones, J & Gallardo-Escárate. C (2013). Deltamethrin (AlphaMax) reveals modulation of genes related to oxidative stress in the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi: implications on the anti-salmon lice drug effectiveness. Aquaculture. Doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.06.017.

45. Maldonado-Aguayo, W. & Gallardo-Escárate. C. (2013). Increased transcriptional response of SERPINs evidences a putative mechanism of immune evasion in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Marine Genomics. Doi: 10.1016/j.margen.2014.04.006.

44. Gonçalves, A. T., Farlora, R. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2013). Transcriptome survey of lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroids synthesis of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. Doi: 10.1016/j.cbpb.2014.07.002.

2012

43. Haye, P. A., Segovia, N., Vera, R., Gallardo, M. A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Authentication of commercialized crabmeat in Chile using DNA Barcoding. Food Control. 25: 239-244.

42. Dupré, E., Gómez, D., Araya, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Role of egg surface glycoconjugate in the fertilization of the rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus (Milne-Edwards, 1837). Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res. DOI: 10.3856.

41. Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Guzmán-Riffo, B., Haye, P. A & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012) Mining of EST-SSR from pyrosequencing 454 in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium (Lamark, 1818). Conservation Genetics Resources. DOI: 10.1007/s12686-012-9652-3.

40. Núñez-Acuña, G., Tapia, F., Haye, P. A & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Gene expression analysis in Mytilus chilensis populations reveals local patterns associated with ocean environmental conditions. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2012.03.024.

39. Núñez-Acuña, G., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Chávez-Mardones, J. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 gene associated with pathogen response in Concholepas concholepas: SNP identification and transcription expression. Journal of Fish and Shellfish Immunology. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2012.08.024.

38. Valenzuela, V., Bueno M., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Characterization of the transcriptomes of Haliotis rufescens reproductive tissues.pdf. Aquaculture Research. doi:10.1111/are.12044.

37. Gallardo-Escárate, C. & Amar-Basulto, G. (2012). FISH mapping of the VERL gene in two abalone species (Haliotis rufescens and H. discus hannai) and their inter-species hybrids. Aquaculture International. Submitted.

36. Núñez-Acuña, G., Aguilar-Espinoza, A. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Complete mitochondrial genome of Concholepas concholepas inferred by 454 pyrosequencing and mtDNA gene expression of two wild populations. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part D. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2012.10.004.

35. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Núñez-Acuña, G., V. Valenzuela-Muñoz, Maldonado-Aguayo & P. A. Haye. (2012). SNP discovery and gene annotation in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium. Aquaculture Research. doi:10.1111/are.12273.

34. Valenzuela, V. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). SNP discovery and high resolution melting analysis from massive transcriptome sequencing in the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens. Marine Genomics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margen.2012.12.003.

33. Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Valderrama-Aravena, N., Lafarga, F & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Development of novel polymorphic EST-SSR markers in Californian abalone Haliotis rufescens and genetic analysis in wild and hatchery-bred populations. Aquaculture Research.doi: 10.1111/are.12141.

32. Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Aguilar-Espinoza, A. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Parentage assignment in hybrid abalones (Haliotis rufescens x Haliotis discus hannai) based on microsatellite DNA markers. Aquaculture Research, DOI: 10.1111/are.12169.

31. Núñez-Acuña, G., Aballay, A., Astuya, A & Gallardo-Escarate, C. (2012). Transcriptome response of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed in vivo to Saxitoxin (STX). Journal Molluscan Studies. doi: 10.1093/mollus/eyt030.

30. Maldonado-Aguayo, W., Núñez-Acuña, G., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Chávez-Mardones, J., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Molecular characterization of two kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor genes in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium exposed to Vibrio anguillarum. Journal of Fish and Shellfish Immunology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2013.03.356.

29. Chávez-Mardones, J., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Nuñez-Acuña, V., Maldonado-Aguayo, W., Gallardo-Escárate., C. (2012). Characterization of ferritin and identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with innate immune response in Concholepas concholepas. Journal of Fish and Shellfish Immunology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2013.06.028.

2011

28. Salinas-Clarot, K., Gutiérrez, A., Núñez-Acuña, G., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2011). Molecular characterization and gene expression of ferritin in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Journal of Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 30(1): 430-433.

27. Amar-Basulto, G., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2011). Karyotype analysis of interspecific hybrids between Haliotis rufescens and H. discus hannai. Aquaculture Research 42(10): 1460-1466.

26. Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2011). Intra and interspecies hybrids in Haliotis: natural and experimental evidence and its impact on abalone aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture 3(2) 74-99.

25. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Valenzuela, M., Haye, P. (2011). Isolation and characterization of 12 new microsatellite loci for Chilean rock shell Thais chocolata (Gastropoda: Muricidae). Molecular Ecology Resources, 11 (3): 586-589.

24.Palfner,G., Valenzuela, V., Gallardo-Escárate., Parra,L., Becerra,J. and Silva, M. (2011). Cordyceps cuncunae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales), a new pleoanamorphic species from temperate rainforest in southern Chile. Mycological Progres, DOI:10.1007/s11557-011-0784-8.

23. Cárdenas, L., Sánchez, S., Gomez, D., Fuenzalida, G., Gallardo-Escárate, C, Tanguy, A. (2011). Transcriptome analysis in Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda, Muricidae): Mining and characterization of new genomic and molecular markers. Marine Genomics 4(3): 197-205.

22. Haye, P. A, Segovia, N., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2011). Novel microsatellite loci for the Chilean northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus. Permanent Genetic Resources Note. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2011.03088.x

21. Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Núñez-Acuña, G., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2011). Hybridization between Haliotis rufescens and H. discus hannai: evaluation of fertilization, larval development, growth and thermal tolerance. Aquaculture research, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2012.03121.x.

2010

20. Segovia, N., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Haye-Molina, P. (2010). Development and characterization of ten microsatellite loci from the South-East Pacific commercial brachyuran crab Homalaspis plana. Molecular Ecology Resources 10(6): 1098–1105.

19. Hernández S, Gallardo-Escárate, C. Alvarez-Borrego, J., González, MT., PA, Haye. (2010). A multidisciplinary approach to identify pelagic shark fins by molecular, morphometric and digital correlation data. Hidrobiológica 2010, 20 (1): 71-80.

18. Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Aguilera-Muñoz, Del Río-Portilla, M., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2010). Genetic variability of cultured populations of red abalone in Chile: an approach based on heterologous microsatellites. Journal of Shellfish Research 29(3): 709-715.

17. Lafarga de la Cruz, F., Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Amar-Basulto, G., Del Río-Portilla, M., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2010). Genetic analysis of an artificially produced hybrid abalone (Haliotis rufescens x H. discus hannai) in Chile. Journal of Shellfish Research 29(3): 717-724.

16. Vivanco-Aranda, M., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Del Río-Portilla, M. (2010). Low-density culture of red abalone juveniles, Haliotis rufescens Swainson 1822, recirculating aquaculture system and flow-through system. Aquaculture Research 41(7): 3-12.

2009

15. Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Lafarga-Cruz, F., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2009). Análisis molecular de gastródos chilenos comerciales basado en secuencias de 16S ARNr, COI y ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2. Gayana 73(1): 17-27.

2008

14. Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Valenzuela-Bustamante, M., Del Río-Portilla, M., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2008). Genomic Integrity evaluation in sperm of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) by comet assay. Gayana 72(1): 36-44.

13. Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2008). Authentication of commercial Chilean mollusks using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) as specie-specific DNA marker. Gayana 72(2): 178-187.

2007

12. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego J, M. A. del Río-Portilla. (2007). Relationship between DAPI-Fluorescent fading and nuclear DNA content: an alternative method to DNA quantification? Biological Research 40: 29-40.

11. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Goldstein-Vásquez, J., M. Thiel. (2007). Individual identification of decapod crustaceans I: color patterns in rock shrimp (Rhynchocinetes typus). Journal of Crustacean Biology 27(3): 393-398.

10. Gallardo-Escárate, C., von Brand Skopnik, E., M. A. del Río Portilla. (2007). Karyotype composition in three California abalones and their relationship with genome size: an image analysis approach. Journal of Shellfish Research 26(3): 1-8.

9. Álvarez-Borrego, J., Gallardo-Escárate, C., V. Kober and M. López-Bonilla. 2007. Genome size: a new method. Proceedings of SPIE – Volume 6422. Sixth Symposium Optics in Industry, Julio C. Gutiérrez-Vega, Josué Dávila-Rodríguez, Carlos López-Mariscal, Editors, 642204.

2006

8. Mouriño-Pérez, R., Álvarez-Borrego, J., Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2006). Optical color correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1 in laboratory and environmental samples. Revista de Biología Marina 41(1): 77-86.

2005

7. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego, J., del Río-Portilla, M. A., Cross, I., Merlo, A., Rebordinos, L. (2005). Fluorescence in situ hybridization of rDNA, telomeric (TTAGGG)n and (GATA)n repeats in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Archaeogastropoda: Haliotidae). Hereditas 142: 73-79.

6. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego J,. von Brand Skopnik, E., del Río-Portilla, M. A.(2005). Genome size estimation in two populations of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1879) using fluorescence image analysis. Journal of Shellfish Research 24(1): 55-60.

5. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego, J., Bueno, M. A., del Río Portilla, M. A. von Brand Skopnik, E. Analysis of chromosomal DNA contents in Pacific red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Archaeogastropoda: Haliotidae) by fluorescence image analysis. Journal of Shellfish Research 24(4): 1161-1168.

4. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego, J., del Río-Portilla, M. A., Cross, I., Merlo, A., Rebordinos, L. 2005. Karyotype analysis and chromosomal localization by FISH of ribosomal DNA, telomeric (TTAGGG)n and (GATA)n repeats in Haliotis fulgens and H. corrugata (Archaeogastropoda: Haliotidae). Journal of Shellfish Research 24(4): 1153-1160.

3. Gallardo-Escárate, C., J. Álvarez-Borrego., M. Á. del Río-Portilla. (2005). DAPI-fluorescent fading: a problem in microscopy or a way to measure nuclear DNA content? ICO XX, International Conference on Optics, Biomedical Optics, Vol. 6026, 0303-06, Changchun, China.

2. Álvarez-Borrego, J., Kober, V., Gallardo-Escarate, C., Chávez-Sánchez, M. C., E. Fájer-Ávila and M. A. Bueno. (2005). Fusion Algorithm for Color Microbiological Organisms Images In Automatized Microscopes. ICO XX, International Conference on Optics, Optical Processing, Vol. 6027, 0409-123, Changchun, China.

2004

1. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego, J., M. A. del Río Portilla., V. Kober, (2004). Karyotype of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Archaeogastropoda: Haliotidae) using image analysis.Journal of Shellfish Research 23(1): 205-209.

2016-2019:

Proyecto FONDECYT N° 1161512. Inner-shelf regimes of hypoxia in an upwelling region: spatial heterogeneity and implications for coastal benthic ecology. Dr. Fabian Tapia (PI). Dr. Cristian Gallardo (co-PI). (M$195.000 CLP).
FONDECYT 1150077. “Uncovering the role of microRNAs by deep sequencing during the ontogenetic development of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi”. Dr. Cristian Gallardo-Escárate (PI), Dr. Sebastian Boltaña (Co-PI).

AMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded, single stranded, non-coding RNAs approximately 22 nucleotides in length. The main function of miRNAs is regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by adding switch controls to complex cell signaling pathways associated with several biological processes, including cell growth, metabolism, nervous system development, the immune response, and reproduction. Furthermore, miRNAs are essential for obtaining optimal expression levels of genes and in regulating the transcripts of target genes involved in the different stages of ontogeny. However, although research has been conducted on miRNAs for twenty years, much is still unknown, such as in regards to miRNA biogenesis and the dynamic interactions of miRNAs with target genes. Moreover, one of the major challenges facing future miRNA research will be relating the discovery of miRNAs in non-model species to specific biological processes. Nevertheless, the development of high-throughput sequencing technology and continuous improvements in bioinformatic approaches mean that deep sequencing analyses of small RNAs, with progressive reductions in cost and time, are currently possible, thus contributing to the available knowledge on biological processes.

Sea lice are naturally occurring parasites for seawater salmon, but, compared to natural conditions, parasite infection and transmission are exacerbated under intensive fish farming. The salmon louse C. rogercresseyi is the main copepod ectoparasite responsible for significant economic losses in the Chilean salmon farming industry. This parasite is known to cause surface damage to fish, which results in mucus breakdown and in turn leads to open sores and lesions. Further problems may arise if fish become stressed due to the presence of sea lice, with chronic stress in fish possibly resulting in immunosuppression and, consequently, increased susceptibility to secondary infections. Moreover, salmon lice infestations have been controlled using delousing drugs, diets formulated with masking compounds, and vaccines. However, a deep genomic understanding of the molecular interactions that these strategies have during ontogenic development is still limited. Thus, the aims of this project are to assess miRNA changes during the lifecycle of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi by using Illumina sequencing and to gain novel insights on the modulation of pivotal biological processes by miRNA. For this, the role of miRNAs in candidate genes will be established by interference miRNA assays, transcription expression and proteomic approaches.

Our research group has recently published several transcriptomic studies evidencing transcriptional changes in C. rogercresseyi from early to adult developmental stages. This comprehensive transcriptomic resource will provide the basis for hypotheses related to miRNA patterns during the distinct developmental stages of this sea louse species and for the discovery of the roles that particular miRNAs play through interfering with specific target genes. Herein, copepods are moreover an excellent model organism for functional analyses of miRNAs involved in conserved pathways between vertebrates and invertebrates, especially for the regulatory pathways that control cell development and morphogenesis, the nervous system, the immune response, metabolism, and reproduction. In this context, a future application of miRNAs could be in the control of salmon lice infestations. Indeed, developing novel control mechanisms that have a low impact on the marine environment is a critical issue for establishing a sustainable Chilean salmon aquaculture industry. Taking this into account, the present project proposal aims to contribute valuable genomic information, through deep sequencing analyses, for one of the most prevalent and economically damaging ectoparasites in Chile . Furthermore, our group will also investigate the application of synthetic inhibitors/mimics so as to interfere with the functioning of salmon louse target genes. The miRNA data and results generated by this research project would form the framework for developing novel control strategies of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

FONDECYT 1150585. Some like it hot: the impact of thermal choice on disease susceptibility in fish. Dr. Sebastian Boltaña (PI), Dr. Cristian Gallardo-Escárate (Co-PI).

BACKGROUND: Individuals within a population suffer different degrees of infection in severity and occurrence. Understanding disease susceptibility has significant implications for animal and human health. Recent studies have confirmed that zebrafish (Danio rerio) display behavioural fever. Behavioural fever, defined as an acute change in termal reference driven by pathogen recognition, has been reported in a variety of invertebrates and ectothermic vertebrates. It has been suggested, that such changes in termal regime favour the immune response and thus promote survival. We show that zebrafish display behavioural fever that acts to promote extensive and highly specific temperature-dependent changes in the brain transcriptome. The observed coupling of the immune response to fever acts at the gene–environment level to promote a robust, highly specific time-dependent anti-viral response that, under viral infection (double stranded RNA virus), increases survival. Fish that are not offered a choice of temperatures and that therefore cannot express behavioural fever show decreased survival under viral challenge. This phenomenon provides an underlying explanation for the varied functional responses observed during systemic fever.

A CASE STUDY: One of the main problems for salmonid aquaculture is the window of increased susceptibility to infections, e.g. infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), during smoltification and sea water transfer. IPNV mainly infects first feeding Atlantic salmon fry in fresh water and post-smolts in a period shortly after seawater transfer. IPNV is a double stranded RNA virus belonging to the Aquabirnaviruses of the Birnaviridae family and infection can lead to high mortality. However the development of effective control strategies is currently limited (scare antibiotic treatment, low vaccines efficacy). Current research practices in fish have not adapted to recent advances in our knowledge of their requirements and, even with recent advances, our knowledge lacks coherence, with several key questions yet to be examined. The limited use of suitable study models has significant negative implications for robustness of the results and control strategies models used in fish immunology. We propose a coherent series of experiments building from our current understanding of ectothermes and their environment rather than from current extended experimental systems. We propose that Salmo salar during viral infection with IPNV, in groups that can get a thermal choice develop fever and promote a thermo coupling with the immune response at trasncritpomal/molecular and physiological level, which optimises its survival. Groups with no temperature choice exhibit clinical pathologies and death.

GOALS: This proposal will provide a framework to explore the mechanisms involved in disease resistance/susceptibility and thermal choice of S. salar challenged with IPNV. This project uses a complex systems approach to develop, validate and parameterize an integrative model linking gene-environment interaction to disease resistance/susceptibility within a population. The model proposed represents a transformational change for disease research in salmonid and by extension mobile ectothermic organisms.

2015-2019:

Proyecto FONDECYT N° 1150077. Uncovering the role of microRNAs by deep sequencing during the ontogenetic development of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Dr. Cristian Gallardo (PI). (M$198.000 CLP).

Proyecto FONDECYT N° 1150585. Some like it hot: the impact of thermal choice on disease susceptibility in fish. Dr. Sebastian Boltaña (PI), Dr. Cristian Gallardo (PI). (M$198.000 CLP).

2014-2018:

Proyecto FONDECYT N°1140862. Disentangling source-sink dynamics with spatial and temporal patterns of genomic diversity and structure in Mytilus chilensis and Pyura chilensis. Universidad Católica del Norte, Dra. Pilar Haye (PI). Universidad de Concepcion, Dr. Cristian Gallardo (co-PI). (M$198.000 CLP)

This proposal aims at uncovering the source-sink dynamics of marine metapopulations using a genomic and transcriptomic approach. Two commercially exploited benthic species that inhabit Chile, the bivalve mollusk Mytilus chilensis and tunicate Pyura chilensis, will be used as model species. They have adispersive larval phase and sessile adults, and inhabit the heterogeneous marine environment. Larvae arriving at habitats that differ in quality from their source may be maladapted as a consequence of a phenotype-environment mismatch. Given local selective pressures in early life stages, realized connectivity among populations of a metapopulation can be much lower than predicted from larval dispersal potential. Sources and sinks defined in terms of habitat quality differ in their temporal sustainability. Sources are temporally stable, have a growth rate greater than zero, and a net export of propagules. Sinks, on the other hand, are characterized by having insufficient reproduction within the local population for the species to carry out its life history and are maintained by continued immigration from source habitats, making them temporally unstable.

To date, characterization of the genetic structure of marine species in Chile has been restricted to the spatial structure of few putatively neutral loci, however, to uncover source-sink dynamics, it is crucial to incorporate the temporal perspective and to use a plethora of genetic markers. Source-sink dynamics should be ideally evaluated using both neutral and adaptive markers (affected by selection) in a temporal context; the former would allow disentangling the effects of neutral processes such as larval-supply while the later would uncover adaptive variation associated to the persistence of individuals in the local habitat. Counting with enough neutral and adaptive markers is currently possible for non-model taxa; Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a means to discover hundreds of markers for population level analysis. We will undertake three experimental approaches to disentangle source-sink dynamics.

2014-2016:

Metatranscriptome modulation of pre- and probiotic dietary supplementation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under intensive aquaculture conditions. Dr. Ana Teresa Gonçalves (PI), Dr. Cristian Gallardo (Co-PI).

In this investigation it is proposed an evaluation of how prebiotic (mannanoligosacharide) and probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) modulate rainbow trout GI microbiome taxonomic diversity, abundance and core functions when under intensive production. It is also proposed an analysis on the microbiome metatranscriptomic modulation by pre- and probiotic dietary supplementation, investigating the pathways involved on those changes and correlating with phenotypic alterations. Using high-throughput sequencing techniques together with associated bioinformatic approaches and data analysis, complementing with physiological analysis and phenotypical validation, expected results include:

a) identification of GI microbiome modulation pattern by prebiotics and probiotics when used as a nutritional strategy in intensively cultured fish; b) identification of the pathways involved on those modulations; and c) identification of GI microbiome novel genes related to immune response, stress response and nutritional and energy metabolism that are modulated by pre- and probiotics. Due to the novel character of the study, it is expected to acquire unprecedented information that will uncover functions, mechanisms of actions and potentialities of aquaculture fish gut microbiome, and will enlighten new nutritional and health management strategies that will be a key towards sustainable aquaculture and fish health allied with safety for the environment and for the consumers.

2013-2016:

Proyecto FONDECYT N°1130807. Molecular evolutionary underpinnings of a successful invasion: neutral and adaptive divergence and their causes among naturalized rainbow trout populations in two patagonian lakes differentially impacted by aquaculture. (Dr. Daniel Gómez (PI), Dr. Cristian Gallardo (Co-PI). (M$148.000 CLP).

While our understanding of the ecological and economic impacts of exotic species has greatly increased during the last decade, especially in Chile, the evolutionary underpinnings of a successful invasion are yet to be fully grasped. Are there populations more invasive than others? How quickly may neutral and adaptive divergence arise among naturalized populations? What environmental factors and evolutionary forces may explain genetic divergence of naturalized populations? What genomic regions may be responsible for adaptive divergence among naturalized populations in different environments? Here we propose to evaluate the magnitude of neutral and adaptive divergence and their causes among naturalized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations from two lakes differentially impacted by aquaculture, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and differential gene expression (RNA-Seq).

Trout/steelhead is one of many species of Pacific salmonids, a charismatic group of fishes endemic to the northern hemisphere, that has been introduced worldwide due to its economic importance for recreational fisheries and aquaculture. In the northern Chilean Patagonia, rainbow trout has become widely established (“naturalized”) outside aquaculture facilities, including marine and freshwater environments, and is fully capable of breeding in the wild. It has been recently suggested that admixture between naturalized and farmed populations may significantly enhance invasive potential for trout, though this idea has not been tested at local scales.

2013-2016:

Proyecto FONDECYT N° 1130629. Population genetic structure of the monogenean parasites, Benedenia cf seriolae and Zeuxapta cf seriolae, infesting natural populations of Seriola lalandi, and its implications for aquaculture. (Dra. María Teresa González (PI), Dr. Cristian Gallardo (Co-PI). (M$96.000 CLP)

Seriola lalandi is farmed successfully in Japan and Australia, but not free of sanitary problems. One of main problems are monogeneans Zeuxapta seriolae and Benedenia seriolae, both considered pathogens because have direct life cycle, short duration generations, high fecundity and when they are present in high prevalence and abundance produce mass mortalities and secondary infections. Among them, we recorded Zeuxapta cf seriolae with prevalence of 70% and Benedenia cf seriolae with prevalence of 20%. The prevalence of these parasites in the natural populations of Seriola lalandi of our coast imply a high potential of transmission to farmed yellowtail kingfish, and announce us thatthese parasites will be a serious problem for successfully development of aquaculture of Seriola lalandi in the northern Chile. These pathogens are treated in farmed of Japan and Australia with Hydrogen Peroxide and freshwater. However, the economic costs are very high (com. Pers, Dr. Ogawa). To mitigate the emergence of pathogens is crucial to incorporate genetic and demographic components of host-parasite system, besides of environmental factors. Thus, it is possible to implement effective protocols as response to diseases and mitigate their effects in the opportune time.

Molecular tools have been extensively used in productive systems, for example, to select progenitors, to detect pathogens, specially those difficult to cultivate, to identify genes associated to diseases, and to develop genetic programs focused to select individuals resistant to diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that parasite load of one ectoparasite (copepod species) in natural host populations is determined by host heterocigocity (genetic diversity). This project proposes: 1) to study, in a temporal scale (2012-2015), the genetic structure of natural populations of S. lalandi and the genetic structures of Z. cf seriolae and B. cf seriolae populations, using molecular markers (microsatellites and SNP), in order to determine how many parasite populations are present in population or populations of S. lalandi arriving annually, in the summer season, at northern Chilean coast, 2) to evaluate inter-annual infestation patterns (abundances and prevalence) and biological traits of parasite populations (fecundity, body size and larval survival) and 3) to evaluate genetic resistence/tolerance of fish to be infested by one particular variant of parasite. This information is the first step in implementing protocols for rapid action to control and management of these emergent diseases in aquaculture of S.lalandi in the north of our country.

2013-2015:

Postdoctorate Project FONDECYT 3130446 "Patterns of miRNA expression and identification of associate SNPs to the gonadal maturation in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Dr. Rodolfo Farlora (PI), Dr. Cristian Gallardo (Co-PI). (M$65.000 CLP)

The beginning of puberty understands the transition from a juvenile-immature condition to an adult-mature condition, where the individual acquires for the first time it's reproductive competence through the functional trigger of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis which controls the majority of the aspects in vertebrate reproduction. The sexual ripeness in fish is considered a critical process in fish farming due to it's negative effect in fish growth and filet quality, this is because of energy mobilization for the gonad development in decline of the somatic growth. In the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss the early male maturation constitutes an important problem, for they can reach maturity before they reach crop size, reducing it's commercial value. Nowadays there is a lot of information available on pituitary effects and gonadal hormones on reproductive function, as well as gene transcriptional regulation and routes of cellular signposting inside the reproductive tissue. However, knowledge on post-transcriptional regulation of genes in this tissues is still scarce.

The recent discovery and identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) means a big advance on the understanding of molecular mechanisms implied in post-transcriptional regulation. The miRNAs constitute a small group of endogeny RNA molecules that don't code for protein and are related mainly with post-transcriptional gene silencing, joining the RNA messengers (mRNA) and preventing its translation to protein, acting as regulators of genetic expression. Also, the occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within miRNAs regions can likewise cause changes on a transcriptomic level. On a post-transcriptional level, when the SNPs occur in the target binding sites located in 3 'UTRs, these SNPs can modify or destroy the attachment of the miRNA, interfering with the mRNA's stability and translation capacity. As a hypothesis it's proposed that miRNAs expression patterns associated to the rainbow trout gonadal maturation process exist. As well, it's proposed the existence of SNPs linked to miRNAs, which allelic variation can be related to expression levels of certain genes involved in the gonadal maturation process.

In this research, we propose to characterize the transcriptomic changes of miRNAs during the gonadal maturation of male and female rainbow trouts through the use of massive sequencing (RNA-seq). Also, we propose to evaluate the association of SNPs linked to miRNA and evaluate it's association to candidate genes related to this reproductive process. The expected results from this project are: 1. Identification for the first time of an miRNAs group related to the regulation go the gonadal maturation process in O. mykiss. 2. Identification and validation of SNPs linked to miRNAs during the gonadal maturation. 3. Determination of the association between the SNPs linked to miRNA with certain candidate genes linked to the gonadal maturation process. 4. Evaluation of the feasibility of the use of SNPs linked to miRNA as a tool in the selective breeding of O. mykiss. The characterization and identification of miRNAs and it's SNPs will be performed using massive sequencing technology by synthesis, bioinformatic analysis and qPCR and HRMA validation

2012-2017:

Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Fourth National Competition for research Centers of Excellence in priority Areas, FONDAP 2011. Dr. C. Gallardo-Escarate, Deputy Director.

Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector in the food industry at a global level, with a growth rate of 7.2% annually since the 1970s. Chile, since the 1980s, has exhibited sustained growth in aquaculture activities, highlighting the production of salmonid and mytilids. The rapid growth of the national salmon industry, reflected in a strong increase in production until 2007, unfortunately generated a parallel increase in the necessary conditions for the appearance of outbreaks of infectious diseases in areas destined for farming centers. The ISA virus epidemic that began in 2008 generated an important socioeconomic crisis in the XIV and XI Regions with the loss of approximately 20,000 jobs. This situation, in conjunction with other sanitary and environmental management problems, has triggered a serious concern for strengthening ecological, economic and social sustainability in Chilean aquaculture. The fundamental objective of this proposal is the creation of the first Interdisciplinary Center for Sustainable Aquaculture Research (INCAR) in Chile. This Center will be established within the framework of a strategic alliance between three important research and academic institutions, the University of Concepcion, the Andres Bello University and the Austral University of Chile. In order to tackle the main issues and knowledge gaps related to the sustainable development of aquaculture in Chile, the main objectives of the INCAR are:

(i) To generate ecologically, biologically, epidemiologically, oceanographically, economically and socially relevant knowledge for the optimal mitigation of aquaculture’s negative impacts on socio-ecological systems and for the design of incentives-based economic regulatory systems for aquaculture related activities, (ii) To produce cutting-edge knowledge on the impacts of aquaculture on ecosystems, including ecological, biological, economic and social dimensions, (iii) To contribute to the knowledge of complex biological processes (e.g. reproduction, physiological adaptation, pathogen vulnerability) in relevant species as a strategy to achieve sustainable aquaculture.INCAR’s research will primarily focus on salmonids and mytilids, currently the most cultivated species in Chile. The Center will also strengthen aquaculture diversification by studying the adaptive biological mechanisms required for the development of aquaculture of endemic species. The Center will not only contribute to the sustainable development of large-scale aquaculture, but also to small-scale aquaculture, making significant contributions to ensure that the development of mytiliculture in the Benthic Resource Management and Exploitation Areas (BRMAs) of the artisanal fisheries, that the Chilean state is promoting, is carried out under sustainable conditions.

Furthermore, beyond its intranational collaborative ties, INCAR will establish and maintain robust international collaboration efforts with 5 international institutions of known scientific excellence: Grappe Interdisciplinaire de Génoprotéomique Appliquée (GIGA) (Belgium), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway), Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls-sur-Mer (Université Pierre et Marie Curie/CNRS, France), University of California at Santa Barbara (USA), and Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain).

INCAR will implement an innovative program for scientific extension, technological transference and formation of advanced human resources through a closely knit collaboration plan with eight graduate programs belonging to the three Chilean institutions that comprise the Center, and the development of public/private collaboration in projects that enhance the awareness and implementation of sustainable aquaculture initiatives.

2012-2017:

Proyecto FONDAP Nº1510027. Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Fourth National Competition for research Centers of Excellence in priority Areas,. Dr. C. Gallardo-Escárate, Deputy Director. (M$4.250.000 CLP).

2012-2015:

Proyecto 12IDL2-15119 I D Applied InnovaChile Corfo “Development of an inhibitory Miostatina vaccine in order to increase growth of red abalones, as a strategy of productive improvement" (M$180.000 CLP)

The environmental and genetic factors that determine growth in aquaculture destined species, are without a doubt one of the most critical productive aspects due to the high costs involved in the productive cycles of commercial species that have a low growth rate.. Alternative technology based on genetic improvement programs and transgenia, have demonstrated to be slow or complex solutions on a productive level due to government regulations in the case of transgenics. On the other hand, current genomic technologies allow the identification of biomolecules with potential use in animal production due to it's functionality in biologic processes such as reproduction and growth. Among them, Miostatina (MSTN), has been described as an inhibitory protein of muscular growth in several species of animal production like cattle, pigs and fish.

In addition, it has been proven that it is possible to inhibit MSNT on a genetic level and in a protein level, gaining muscular mass increase that go from 20-40%. Under this context the present proposal will take on one of the biggest challenges for the chilean abalone industry, to generate biotechnologic solutions that allow to increase the red abalone growth rate (Haliotis rufescens). Specifically, a recombinant vaccine will be developed and implemented from the pro-domain, which will inhibit MSNT on a transcription level generating an increase on abalone muscle mass. On a technologic and productive level, it's proposed that the development of an MSTN inhibitory vaccine during the last stages of the abalone productive cycle, will encourage an increase on growth rate (soft parts total weight) and ultimately a decrease on required timing to reach animals with a higher weight.

2012-2014:

Proyecto FONDECYT 1120397. “Insights into innate immune response of bivalves challenged to Alexandrum catenella: Comparative transcriptome analysis by 454 pyrosequencing”. Universidad de Concepción. Dr. Cristian Gallardo (PI) (M$148.000 CLP)

The invertebrate immune response is a non-adaptive system, based on both cellular and humoral components. Cellular defense comprises a variety of hemocyte types, carrying out phagocytosis process, and cytotoxic or inflammatory responses, while humoral defense involves a receptor-mediated recognition of molecular patterns associated to microorganisms. Herein, the receptors allow the identification of self and non-self components, being their molecular signaling pathways capable of triggering the transcriptome changes involved in the innate immune responses. Thus, invertebrates have a broad suite of possible innate immune responses against pathogens and marine environmental stressors. Despite our quite extended knowledge about innate immune system in invertebrate species in response to pathogen challenges, only very scarce studies investigate immune responses of bivalves exposed to harmful phytoplankton species (HABs). Herein, there are pivotal questions unresolved regarding the genomic basis involved in immune response to HABs.

For instance, could transcriptome changes in bivalves be triggered by marine toxins such as saxitoxin (SXT)? Is it possible to identify candidate genes involved in innate immune responses to SXT? Are there differences among gene expression from tissues and hemocytes under exposure to SXT? Is there any relationship between physiological responses and immune-related gene expression of bivalves exposed to SXT? Are there variations of immune-related gene expression among populations and species? To answer these questions, our proposal aims to analyze the transcriptomic changes in Mytilus chilensis and Mesodesma donacium challenged by A. catenella, a PSP producer, and get novel insights about immune-related genes in bivalves exposed to saxitoxin. Furthermore, we propose to determine gene expression and cell defense using short-term hemocyte cultures challenged to HAB. Herein, the goals will be to (1) Perform a transcriptome characterization by 454 pyrosequencing, (2) Perform an in silico analysis to discover and identify candidate genes associated to immune response against HAB. (3) Determine the association of immune-related genes expression in several bivalve tissues exposed to A. catenella.

(4) Establish expression patterns of candidate genes and cell responses on short-term hemocyte cultures challenged to both A. catenella and SXT, and (5) Determine the variation of gene expression among individuals from different populations for M. chilensis and M. donacium. To accomplish these goals, the experimental design will be carried out by challenge trials (in vivo and in vitro exposure to analyze hemocytes), followed by High-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. This proposal will be conducted in collaboration with Dr. Allisson Astuya and Dr. Daniel Varela, who have expertise respectively in hemocyte cell cultures and ecophysiology of phytoplankton. In parallel, this study will have the international cooperation of Dr. Hélène Hégaret (IUEM/UBO, France). Her expertise in bivalve physiology exposed to HABs is recognized worldwide through her publications on this area. The expected outcomes is to establish how bivalve organisms may respond to marine toxins, and thus, develop molecular tools to improve our ability of predict the possible impacts of HAB on native mollusk species, but also on commercial activities such as aquaculture and fisheries.

2012-2014:

Proyecto FONDECYT 1120896. “Latitudinal shift in the coupling of inner-shelf and mesoscale variability as an explanation for the ecological break observed along central-northern Chile (30-31°S). Universidad de Concepción. (Dr. Fabian Tapia (PI), Dr. Cristian Gallardo (Co-PI). (M$147.000 CLP)

Biogeographic boundaries of marine ecosystems are salient features that result from the interaction of multiple geological, atmospheric and oceanographic processes affecting the population dynamics. The evolving pressure of human activities on coastal systems, as well as future climate scenarios, call for a better understanding of the oceanographic processes that set and maintain these boundaries, in order to improve the management and conservation of coastal ecosystems. Several studies conducted in recent years indicate that there is a latitudinal break in ecological patterns along the coast of central-northern Chile at 30-31°S. Abrupt changes in the abundance and recruitment of intertidal species, as well as in genetic structure of certain macroalgae and benthic invertebrates, have been found despite the absence of a concomitant break in bathymetry or shoreline orientation, whereas other relevant physical factors appear to change gradually along the region. The existence of a sharp ecological boundary in the apparent absence of equally abrupt physical changes provides the motivation for this proposal. Mesoscale patterns of coastal wind stress along central-northern Chile (20-35°S) imply a gradual change in the intensity and persistence of upwelling, being more intermittent but stronger towards the south, and more persistent in the north. It is thought that such latitudinal gradient in upwelling may contribute to the ecological break, by shaping patterns of larval dispersal and through its effects on coastal productivity. However, the abrupt change in community structure at 30-31°S points to a gap in our current understanding of how mesoscale variability in the coastal ocean modulates inner-shelf dynamics and ultimately shapes coastal benthic communities.

In a recent study, we documented a discontinuity in shoreline temperature regimes at 30- 31°S, and showed a south-north drop in the response of local temperatures to meridional wind variability, as well as in the frequency with which cold waters reach the shore. This finding suggests that daily temperature variability at northern sites may not be as strongly coupled with upwelling as in southern sites, and that northern sites are less frequently exposed to cold, nutrient-rich upwelled waters, a potentially strong driver oflocal changes in community structure. This leads to the main hypothesis we put forward in this proposal: that a latitudinal shift in the coupling of inner-shelf variability and mesoscale forcing underlies the ecological break observed at 30-31°S on the Chilean coast. A spatial change in the connection between upwelling and inner-shelf regimes of temperature and nutrient inputs is expected to affect the growth and species composition of macroalgae and benthic invertebrates, and to produce differing levels of physiological stress for some species, thus shaping benthic communities. Beyond a certain temperature threshold, local conditions may be detrimental for growth, reproductive performance, and survival of sessile benthic invertebrates. Available data for mussels show a drop in growth rates and abundance across the 30-31°S break, whereas recent measurements of heat-sock proteins (HSP70) in a species of limpet show a local increase at this same latitude, and marked seasonal differences in the expression of genes associated with thermal stress.

For a different section of the Chilean coast (40-43°S), and for a different mussel, a recently completed study showed that geographic changes in the expression of thermal stressrelated genes (Hsp70, Hsp90) are highly correlated with long-term mean surface temperature at each site. Across 30°S, we expect a discontinuity in physiological stress for intertidal species, which will ultimately produce a latitudinal shift in community structure. We will address the stated hypotheses using an array of inner- and mid-shelf moorings deployed at 6 sites along 32-29°S, to provide a continuous record of hydrographic structure (T/S) in response to coastal winds measured at 4 points along the region of interest. These continuous measurements will be combined with intensive seasonal surveys to characterize the cross-shelf structure of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate distributions, concurrent with continuous records of shoreline nitrate concentrations. From these data, we expect to establish a quantitative link between wind-derived upwelling estimates, and the strength of upwelling-driven variability reaching the mid and inner shelf. Finally, we will assess spatial-temporal patterns in the expression of several stress-related genes in benthic invertebrates that span the break, but have been shown to vary either in their population dynamics or genetic structure. By testing these hypotheses we will narrow the gap between understanding the far-field phenomena that drive physical variability in the coastal ocean, and the near-field factors that regulate and shape intertidal benthic communities.

2011-2014:

FONDEF D09I1065. "Reference platform for genomic sustainable management of benthic resources of commercial interest and repopulation of natural banks". Universidad de Concepción, Universidad Católica del Norte, Universidad Austral de Chile. (M$294.732 CLP)

Repopulation, is the controlled introduction of individuals to a natural bank in order to increase the local abundance of the resource. In Chile, a recent interest in restocking has emerged from the adoption of 11 projects in the HUAM program of FONDEF. However, none of these new project evaluates the genetic status of the populations to be resettled or those to be used for the repopulation. According to international experience, the use of population units without genomic criteria produces: (i) a reduction of biomass in the areas of product management and natural banks of non adaptation of introduced individuals (increased mortality rates), (ii) low recovery rates of the host population in handling areas when a genotype mix happens between adapted and non-adapted individuals in local conditions, (iii) a reduction in the genetic health of the population, and (iv) social effects associated with traditional fishing economies. Hence the population genetic assessment is essential to ensure the success of doubling in Chile. This proposal will develop a genomic approach to genetic-population studies in natural and crop benthic species harvested in AMERBs.

The aim is to implement a genomic platform that allows a sustainable genetic management of benthic species exploited in the Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (AMERBs), and decision-making in natural banks restocking programs by : i) the generation of genomic tools to characterize expression of gene products associated with adaptability and genetic structure of populations, ii) creating a genomic library with historical records of genetic diversity, iii) design and proposal of regulations that ensure the conservation of the genetic heritage of genomic benthic resources, sustainable exploitation and Joint Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB) with interest groups associated with management areas and resettlement programs by developing strategies for dissemination and technology transfer. Finally, by linking with Fondef and Innova-Corfo currently running projects, population-genetic procedures developed here will be applied in the Hedgehog (FONDEF AQ08I1024), the sea chicorea (FONDEF AQ08I1028) the piure (FONDEF AQ08I1030) and the loco (INNOVA-CORFO). This is intended to establish and strengthen a network of national research to ensure the success of current initiatives and future repopulation.

2011-2014:

Proyecto FONDEF D09I1067. “Biotechnology applied to the production of a hybrid between red and green abalone (Phase 2): Optimization of the bonding procedure for the development of a variety of productive and commercial interest”. Universidad de Concepción. (M$225.184 CLP)

The results obtained during execution of the project FONDEF D06I1027 "Biotechnology applied to the production of a hybrid between red and green abalone: development of a new product and consumer market prospects”, demonstrated the feasibility of producing hybrid seeds with characteristics of production and commercial interest significantly improved in comparison to the parent species, such as increased survival rates, return percentage, growth rates and productive management. In addition, it was possible to genetically characterize the hybrid progeny by developing a molecular identification kit, parental genetic contribution and estimation of gene expression in hybrids under stress conditions, such as increased water temperature in crop conditions. With the obtained results began an intellectual protection and technology transfer process towards associated companies.

However, production technology of hybrid abalone requires optimization to achieve productive and commercial scaling and supply the abalone industry with new technically feasible and commercially viable hybrid variety. This continuity project will address the following issues identified in the project D06I1027: (1) variation in the proportion of hybrid phenotypes of commercial interest (characteristic foot muscle of the green abalone and characteristic growth of the red abalone ), and (2) low rate of fertilization and seed production in hybrid crosses. The main causes of both problems lie in the existence of a parental genetic contribution to the phenotype of the hybrid and the compatibility of proteins involved in the process of gamete recognition during fertilization, respectively . The proposed solutions are (1) search and identification of DNA molecular markers (SSR-EST y SNPs) derivatives from gene expression of the commercial interest characters in hybrids, and (2) production and use of a recombinant protein inductor fertilization.

This way, This project aims to manage and scale the production of a hybrid variety that simultaneously presents phenotypic traits of both red and green abalone . The results of production involved are the development of a molecular markers kit for reproductor selection and obtaining a sperm fertilization inducer. In addition, the project will seek to end the process of intellectual protection resulting from in vitro method for the production of commercial hybrids. In terms of technology transfer, a business plan will be implemented and contracts will be designed to transfer the main results of the project to local companies interested. Once the project is completed, member companies will have access to an optimized protocol that will allow them to increase production levels of a hybrid variety with characteristics of productive and commercial interest.

2010-2012:

Project “Development and validation of an innovative technique of parental genetic identification in loco Concholepas concholepas as a tool to evaluate the effectiveness of repopulation methods, preparation and management on the AMERBs of the IV Región”. GORE- Coquimbo. Chile. (M$67.000 CLP)

Concholepas concholepas is a marine neogasthropode with a range of distribution that includes all the South-east Pacific, from Lobos Afuera Island (6°S) to the 56°S parallel in Cabo de Hornos. This species possesses a high environmental interest, as its wide range of distribution has a life cycle with a panthonic larval state that remains for at least 3 meses en la columna de agua generando en las poblaciones una alta capacidad de dispersión months in the water spine generating a high dispersibility capacity on populations. Moreover it has high commercial interest for it is one of the main species of invertebrates of small-scale capture fisheries in Chile. Despite this, the overfishing of this resource has been performed by manual extraction of natural stocks managed only by a management plan implemented two decades ago which has led to overexploitation of the resource and implemented measures has been necessary as the ban.

To increase natural stocks there have been experiences of repopulation of resource management areas, but currently there is no technique capable of evaluating the effectiveness of these activities, generating uncertainty in organizations of artisanal fishermen from the real need for this practice. In specific, There is currently a need to determine whether individuals originated after a repopulation process effectively come from the parent population or are progeny of preexisting individuals in the repopulated areas, it is also necessary to know the proportion of individuals who are progeny of the source populations in order to in some way measure the repopulation success. The main objective of this project is to evaluate a technique to evaluate the effectiveness of restocking activities carried out in the loco Concholepas resource. in various creeks in the Coquimbo region.

To do this, we propose an analysis of parental allowance by using high-resolution molecular markers (SNPs y EST-SSR) in the transcriptome C. concholepas by pirsosecuencing 454 and novo assembly. Such markers are proposed under the assumption that their resolution can assign kinship in repopulated individuals even though the resource has a high level of dispersion in its larval stage and the biogeographic scale used comprises a low latitudinal range. It is therefore necessary to identify a large number of both types of markers, which can be obtained by techniques of high-throughput sequencing transcriptome resource, therefore using pyrosequencing technology is proposed 454 resource ARN.

2010-2014:

Proyecto creación Laboratorio Internacional Asociado Chile-Francia: Marine Biogeochemisry and Functional Ecology (MORFUN).

2008-2011:

Proyecto FONDEF D06I1085. “Producción de abalones monosexo mediante inactivación nuclear gamética y desarrollo de una técnica para la identificación sexual: biotechnologic solutions for the abalone industry”. Universidad de Concepción-Chile. (M$197.000 CLP)

The production of abalone in Chile has shown steady growth since its introduction in the early 80's, currently producing near 350 ton. with an income of 7 million dollars in the year 2005. This production increase was mainly supported by a technology based on ground systems, which leads to serious limitations in the industry as the productive scaling, high investment costs and lack of diversification in marine concessions. Although the current legislation allows the cultivation of abalone in open circuits (Supreme decree Nº231), there is no technological alternative in the market that ensures monosexual culture or certify the sexes in industrial scale abalone. This way, the lack of an efficient and economically viable technology is presented as a threat against the productive growth of abalone in Chile. This project, proposes to generate biotechnology capable of producing mono sexual abalones by nuclear inactivation procedures (sexual genetic block).

The monosex progeny will be evaluated according to variables such as rate of larval culture fixation, growth rate, survival, feed efficiency and reproductive condition. In parallel, the project will seek to characterize and identify markers for abalone sex identification. Said markers, both biochemical and molecular will be validated at an industrial level allowing domestic producers to comply with the regulations of cultivating single sex abalones authorized in the northern bay area. The products of the project will generate a business plan based on the production of monosexual seeds or the licensing of the technology, development of sexual identification kits and sales of sexing services. The expected impacts of the project will be verified by reducing cultivation costs, increased productivity and diversification of existing marine concessions.

2008-2011:

Proyecto INNOVA 07CT9 PDT-79. "Genetic traceability of aquaculture products: Development of a genetic information bank for the export food industry”. Universidad de Concepción-Chile, Universidad Católica del Norte. (M$300.000 CLP)

The market for marine products from crop or wild environment, and the processing of them, ha experimentado en los últimos años un crecimiento sostenido motivado en gran medida por el aumento del consumo per cápita y cambios sociales en la mayoría de los países occidentales. This increase in demand for fresh and processed fish, shellfish, has led to the existence of guidelines and sanitary regulations on food safety. This way, since 2005 the food business industries, within them the fisheries and aquaculture sector, will have to develop and implement policies and procedures for animal identification and traceability according to European Regulation 178/2002, Bioterrorism Law and COOL (Country-Of-Origin-Labeling). On the other hand, the development of robust tools to ensure compliance, is derived in economic connotations as increasing market competitiveness by ensuring food safety and quality, differentiate products from potential fraud or substitutes and optimize the supply management in end markets.

This project will aim to develop procedures for genetic traceability for aquaculture export industry and implement a genebank of aquaculture products. This way, using DNA markers will allow to establish a genetic fingerprint to identify a species or product, as well as its origin, as far in the production chain as necessary, regardless of processing or commercial presentation. As products of the project, the development of a gene bank or germplasm of commercial species, a database of relevant genetic markers parameters and development of species-specific DNA are established. Upon completion of the project there will be a biotech able to meet market requirements for aquaculture products as certified place of origin and quality (according to a database), biosecurity, OGMs identification, market diversification, protection against unfair competition and substitutes.

This way, through interdisciplinary cooperation an efficient mechanism of genetic traceability will be designed and proposed, which would give solutions to both producers and markets for aquaculture products export. For the execution of the project, there will be an alliance between Universidad de Concepción (beneficiary) through the Centro de Biotecnología, the Universidad Católica del Norte (Co-executor), and companies engaged in the production of export and foreign institutions specialized in the development of biotechnological processes for aquaculture products. Transfer mechanisms and dissemination of results will range from technology packaging and sale of molecular kits, dissemination seminars, technical workshops, and human resources formation, a band of genetic information and documentation of germplasm of aquaculture products and scientific productivity. In addition, protection of the results contemplated by patenting processes and intellectual property protection.

2007-2010:

Proyecto FONDEF D06I1027. “Biotechnology applied to the production of a hybrid between red and green abalone: development of a new product and consumer market prospects”. Universidad de Concepción-Chile, Universidad Católica del Norte. (M$205.000 CLP)

The introduction of the red abalone (H. rufescens) and the green abalone (H. discus hannai) was held in Chile in the early 70s and 80s respectively. Since then, abalone production has shown a steady growth, nowadays reaching a production close to 350 ton. However, this increase in production levels requires parallel progress on other factors such as improved production efficiency and the diversification of consumer markets. Biotechnology allows access to these areas by processes involving the development of new products. This way, a biotechnology application is the hybridization between two related species. Hybridization is beneficial in terms of production because the hybrids show improved features compared to the average of the parental species. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology that enables to generate a new product, a hybrid abalone between red and green.

In addition, The project involves the genetic certification of hybrid progenies, as well as prospecting and characterization of the consumer market for the entry of a new abalone product. Production results are to develop a standardized procedure for hybridization between H. rufescens and H. d. hannai, as well as the production and marketing of seeds of hybrid abalone with added value. For the protection results a patent will be set for hybridization procedure, as well as a trademark for hybrid abalone seeds. For the transfer results, technological and technical contracts will be established. In addition, once hybridization procedures between red and green abalone are developed, participating companies will have a new product to test whether in culture or commercial conditions. After two years of project completion, businesses can acquire technology or licensing to participate in the national industry.

2007-2010:

Director General Proyecto FONDEF D06I1027. “Biotechnology applied to the production of a hybrid between red and green abalone: development of a new product and consumer market prospects”. Universidad de Concepción-Chile, Universidad Católica del Norte. Dr. Cristian Gallardo (Director General). (M$205.000 CLP)

Previous projects from before 2009



2006-2009:

Director Alterno Proyecto FONDEF D05I10246. “Investigación y desarrollo de un banco de germoplasma criobiotecnológico para especies marinas”. Universidad Católica del Norte-Chile, Universidad de Valparaíso.Dr.Cristian Gallardo (Director Alterno).

2006-2009:

Proyecto FONDEF D05I10258. “Producción a escala piloto de hembras de choro zapato con color gonadal modificado mediante técnicas biotecnológicas”. Universidad de Concepción, Universidad Católica del Norte-Chile.

2008-2009:

Proyecto FIP 2008-39 “Caracterización molecular de los principales recursos bentónicos y estudio de conectividad entre sus poblaciones entre la I y II Regiones. (FaseI).

2002-2005:

FONDEF D02I1095. “Optimización de la producción ambientalmente limpia de triploides de ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus”. Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo – Chile.Asistente de Investigación.

2002-2004:

Proyecto CONACYT 33018-b. “Marcadores genéticos en el abulón Haliotis spp.”. Asistente de Investigación.

2002-2004:

Proyecto CONACYT 36075-b. “Procesamiento Automático de Partículas Biogénicas”. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación superior de Ensenada, México.Asistente de Investigación.

1999-2001:

Asistente de investigación FONDEF D98I1044. “Investigación y desarrollo de una tecnología limpia de inducción a triploidía mediante 6-DMAP, en la ostra Crassostrea gigas y el ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus”. Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo – Chile.

2015

148. Valenzuela, D., Boltaña, S., Gallardo-Escárate, C. 30th March 2015. RNA-seq analysis unravels the mechanisms of ISAV-induced a divergent tissue regulation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). 13th International Society of Developmental & Comparative Immunology, Murcia, Spain.

147. Valenzuela-­Miranda, D., Segovia, C., Valderrama, K., Almarza, O., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Santander, J. 23 – 26 August 2015. Molecular mechanisms orchestrating iron uptake in Piscirickettsia salmonis. Aquaculture 2015. Le Corum, Montpellier, France.

146. Valenzuela-Miranda, D., Del Río-Portilla, MA., Gallardo-Escárate, C. 05-10 October 2015. Growth-related transcriptome of the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson, 1822. IAS2015, 9th International Abalone Symposium, Yeosu, Korea.

2014

145. Macedo-Carranco, J., Aguilar‐Espinoza, A., del Río‐Portilla. M. Á, C. Gallardo‐Escárate., 2014 and F. Lafarga‐de la Cruz. 2014. Genetic characterization of hatchery-produced red abalone Haliotis rufescens in mexico based on EST-SSR markers. World Aquaculture 2014. February 10-12, 2014. Seattle, Washington, USA.

144. Gonçalves, A.T., Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2014. Transcriptome analysis as a tool to understand life cycle processes and metabolic strategies of fish parasites – The case of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. World Aquaculture 2014. June 7-11, 2014. Adelaide, Australia.

143. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Nuñez-Acuña, G., Gonçalves, A.T., Chavez-Mardones, J., Maldonado-Aguayo, W., Farlora, R. 2014. RNA-Seq analysis using de novo transcriptome assembly as a reference for the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. World Aquaculture 2014. June 7-11, 2014. Adelaide, Australia.

142. Del Río-Portilla, M.A & C. Gallardo-Escárate. 2014. Transcriptomic analysis of fast an slow growing juveniles of red abalone Haliotis rufescens. Mollusca 2014. 22-27 de junio de 2014. Ciudad de México, México.

141. Lafarga‐De la Cruz, F., Aguilar‐Espinoza, A., Vargas‐Peralta, C., C. Gallardo‐Escárate and M. Á del Río‐Portilla. 2014. Genetic diversity of hatchery‐reared red abalone Haliotis rufescens in Baja California, México. Mollusca 2014. 22-27 de junio de 2014. Ciudad de México, México.

140. López-Landavery, E., Portillo-López, A., C. Gallardo-Escárate & M. Á. Del Rio-Portilla. 2014. Expression of sex-related genes in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens. Mollusca 2014. 22-27 de junio de 2014. Ciudad de México, México.

139. Núñez-Acuña, G and C. Gallardo-Escárate. “Insights into the olfactory system of the octoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi: Molecular characterization and gene transcription analysis of novel olfactory transduction pathway”. Sea Lice 2014. August 31st to September 5th. Portland, Maine, USA.

138. Gallardo-Escárate, C., V. Valenzuela-Muñoz, G. Núñez-Acuña, J. Chávez-Mardones, W. Maldonado-Aguayo, A.T. Gonçalves, R. Farlora, D. Valenzuela-Miranda. “Caligus rogercresseyi transcriptome: Novel insights for key biological processes during the lifecycle of the salmon louse”. Sea Lice 2014. August 31st to September 5th. Portland, Maine, USA.

137. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., G. Núñez-Acuña, A. Peña & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “ Identification of candidate genes with response to delousing drugs by transcriptoe mining in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi”. Sea Lice 2014. August 31st to September 5th. Portland, Maine, USA.

136. Maldonado-Aguayo, V. & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “Increasing transcriptome response of SERPINs during the ontogenetic stages in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi”. Sea Lice 2014. August 31st to September 5th. Portland, Maine, USA.

135. Chávez-Mardones, J. & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “Deltamethrin (Alphamax) reverals modulation of genes related to oxidative stress in the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi: Implication on delousing drug effectiveness”. Sea Lice 2014. August 31st to September 5th. Portland, Maine, USA.

134. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., G. Núñez-Acuña & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “RNA-Seq analysis evidences a multiple gene response in Caligus rogercresseyi exposed to the organophosphate azamethiphos (BAYER). Sea Lice 2014. August 31st to September 5th. Portland, Maine, USA.

133. Aedo, E., Aballai, V.,Fuentes, E.,Gallardo-Escarate, C.,Molina, A.,Valdés, J. Transcriptomic analysis of handling stress response of the red cusk eel (Genypterus chilensis) skeletal muscle. XXXVII Annual Meeting Sociedad de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. September 30th to October 04th 2014. Puerto Varas, Chile.

132. González, P., Estrada, J., Gallardo, C., Valdes, J., Meneses, C., Molina, A. Microsatellite identification for genetic variability analysis in Red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis). XXXVII Annual Meeting Sociedad de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. September 30th to October 04th 2014. Puerto Varas, Chile.

131. Aedo, J., Fuentes, E., Gallardo-Escarate, C., Molina, A., Valdes, J.A. Analysis of handling stress-responsive transcriptome of red cusk-eel (Genypterus Chilensis). 27th Conference of European Comparative Endocrinologists. 25th to 29th August 2014. Rennes, France.

2013

130.Gallardo-Escárate, C., G. Núñez-Acuña. RNA-seq analysis reveals a complex immune response against saxitoxin in the mussel Mytilus chilensis. The First Conference of the International Society of Fish and Shellfish Immunology, Volume 34, Issue 6, June 2013, Page 1707. Vigo – España.

129.Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., C. Gallardo-Escárate. Molecular characterization of IRAK-4 and Interleukin-17 genes in the California red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) exposed to Vibrio anguillarum. The First Conference of the International Society of Fish and Shellfish Immunology, Volume 34, Issue 6, June 2013, Page 1743. Vigo – España.

128.Nuñez-Acuña, G., V. Valenzuela-Muñoz, C. Gallardo-Escárate. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing for SNPs discovery associated to immune-relevant genes in the mussel Mytilus chilensis. The First Conference of the International Society of Fish and Shellfish Immunology, Volume 34, Issue 6, June 2013, Page 1707. Vigo – España.

127.López, E., Portillo-López, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C,. del Rio-Portilla, M. Validation of housekeeping genes as internal control for expression of expression of sex-specific genes in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens. 46th Meeting Western Society of Malacologists. June 23-26, 2013. San Diego, USA.

126. Del Rio-Portilla, M., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Vargas, C., Paniagua, C. Population genetic of the red abalone cultured in Baja California using microsatellites derived from next generation sequencing. 46th Meeting Western Society of Malacologists. June 23-26, 2013. San Diego, USA.

125.Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2013. Secuenciación masiva de transcriptomas en especies no modelos: una mirada en invertebrados acuáticos. Simposio de Genómica evolutiva y ecológica: estudios de especies no modelo. V Reunión Binacional de Ecología. Puerto Varas 3 and 6 de Noviembre, Chile.

124.Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2013. CALIGUS-SEQ: Avances, desafíos y perspectivas sobre proyecto de secuenciación masiva de última generación en Caligus rogercresseyi. VI Foro Internacional de Recursos Marinos y Acuicultura. 25 – 28 th November 2013. Valparaíso, Chile.

123.Goncalves, AT. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. 2013. Dietas funcionales para el mejoramiento de la sanidad y la sustentabilidad de la acuicultura. VI Foro Internacional de Recursos Marinos y Acuicultura. 25 – 28 th November 2013. Valparaíso, Chile.

2012

122.Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Del Rio-Portilla, M & Gallardo-Escarate, C. Development of EST-SSR molecular markers for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. 8th International Abalone Symposium, 06th May-11th May 2012. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

121.Del Rio-Portilla, M., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F & Gallardo-Escarate, C. Morphometric analysis and condition index for breeding programs of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens. 8th International Abalone Symposium, 06th May-11th May 2012. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

120.Trujillo-Valle, M. L. Vargas-Peralta, C., Delgado-Vega, R., Gallardo-Escárate, C. & Del Rio-Portilla, M. Colour chart for the estimation of microalgal concentration: a practical appoach. 8th International Abalone Symposium, 06th May-11th May 2012. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

119.Lafarga-De la Cruz F., Amar-Basulto, G., Nuñez-Acuña, V. Valenzuela, G., Gallardo-Escárate C., “Haliotis rufescens x H. discus hannai: a new hybrid to improve the Chilean abalone aquaculture?, 104th National Shellfish Association (NSA) Annual Meeting, del 25-29 de Marzo de 2012, Seattle, USA.

118.Lafarga-De la Cruz F., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Del Río-Portilla, M.A. Gallardo-Escárate C., “Development of EST-SSR molecular markers for red abalone Haliotis rufescens”. 104th National Shellfish Association (NSA) Annual Meeting, del 25-29 de Marzo de 2012, Seattle, USA.

117. Lafarga-De la Cruz F., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Del Río-Portilla, M.A. Gallardo-Escárate C., “Development of EST-SSR molecular markers for red abalone Haliotis rufescens”. International Abalone Symposium (IAS), del 6-11 de Mayo de 2012, Hobart, Tasmania.

116.Del Río-Portilla, M.A., Lafarga-De la Cruz F., Gallardo-Escárate C. Morphometric analysis and condition index for breeding programs of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens. International Abalone Symposium (IAS), del 6-11 de Mayo de 2012, Hobart, Tasmania.

115.Aguilar-Espinoza, Andrea., Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Jacqueline Chávez-Mardones, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-like gene associated to pathogen response in Concholepas concholepas: SNP identification and transcription expression. XXXV Reunión Annual de la Sociedad Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. 01-05 de Octubre de 2012. Puerto Varas –Chile.

114.Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo., Ambbar Aballay, Allisson Astuya, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate. Transcriptome response of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed in vivo to Saxitoxin (STX). XXXV Reunión Annual de la Sociedad Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. 01-05 de Octubre de 2012. Puerto Varas –Chile.

113.Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina., Daniel Uribe, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate. SNP mining in haliotis rufescens from transcriptome pyrosequencing. XXXV Reunión Annual de la Sociedad Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. 01-05 de Octubre de 2012. Puerto Varas –Chile.

112.Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska., Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Gustavo Nuñez-Acuña, Jacqueline Chávez-Mardones, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate. Molecular characterization of two serine proteinase inhibitor genes in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium exposed to Vibrio anguillarum. XXXV Reunión Annual de la Sociedad Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. 01-05 de Octubre de 2012. Puerto Varas –Chile.

111.Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline., Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Gustavo Nuñez-Acuña, Waleska Maldonado-Aguayo, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate. Characterization of ferritin and identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with innate immune response in Concholepas concholepas. XXXV Reunión Annual de la Sociedad Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. 01-05 de Octubre de 2012. Puerto Varas –Chile.

2011

110. Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Pyrosequencing in reproductive tissue of red abalone (H. rufescens) and SNP mining from sex-specific genes. World Aquaculture 2011, 07-10 june, Natal, Brazil.

109. Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Genetic evaluation of abalones (Haliotis rufescens) with differences in growth rate by means EST-SSR heterologous markers. World Aquaculture 2011, 07-10 june, Natal, Brazil.

108. Núñez-Acuña, G., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Haye, P. A., Cárdenas, L., Gallardo-Escárate, C. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing from concholepas concholepas: genomic resources for restocking and aquaculture. World Aquaculture 2011, 07-10 june, Natal, Brazil.

107. Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Núñez-Acuña, G., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Transcriptome characterization in mesodesma donacium (Bivalvia) and discovery of new molecular markers. Genomics in Aquaculture International Symposium (GIA2011). 14-17 September 2011, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

106. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Bueno-Ibarra, M. A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Pyrosequencing in reproductive tissue of Haliotis rufescens and validation of novel sex-specific molercular markers. Genomics in Aquaculture International Symposium (GIA2011). 14-17 September 2011, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

105. Núñez-Acuña, G., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Haye, P. A., Cárdenas, L., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Novel genomic resources for aquaculture and restocking of Concholepas concholepas (neogastropoda: muricidae). Genomics in Aquaculture International Symposium (GIA2011). 14-17 September 2011, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

104. Chávez, J., Astuya, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Caracterización molecular de Ferritina e identificación de SNPs en Concholepas concholepas. XLIV Reunión anual Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 6-9 de noviembre 2011, Puerto Varas, Chile.

103. Muñoz, N. C., Segovia, N., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Haye, P.A. Estructura genética de Homalaspis plana (Brachyura) en la costa de Chile con ADN mitocondrial y microsatélites. XIV COLACMAR, 30 de Octubre y 04 de Noviembre de 2011. Camboriú, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil.

102.Haye, P. A., Gallardo, M. A., Segovia, N. I., Vera, R., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Autenticación de carne de braquiuros comercializados en Chile usando ADN Barcoding. XIV COLACMAR, 30 de Octubre y 04 de Noviembre de 2011. Camboriú, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil.

101.Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Haye, P., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Caracterización de marcadores EST-SSR y genes candidatos en Mesodesma donacium a partir de pirosecuenciación 454. XLIV Reunión anual Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 6-9 de noviembre 2011, Puerto Varas, Chile.

100.Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Alonso-Chivite, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Validación de marcadores moleculares asociados a sexo en Haliotis rufescens obtenidos por pirosecuenciación 454. XLIV Reunión anual Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 6-9 de noviembre 2011, Puerto Varas, Chile.

99.Alonso-Chivite, A., Amar-Basulto, G., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Núñez-Acuña, G., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Identificación molecular de híbridos de abalón utilizando el gen VERL: Análisis de RFLP y FISH. XLIV Reunión anual Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 6-9 de noviembre 2011, Puerto Varas, Chile.

98.Núñez-Acuña, G., Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Haye, P. A., Cárdenas, L., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Identificación y validación de marcadores SNPs en Concholepas concholepas. XLIV Reunión anual Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 6-9 de noviembre 2011, Puerto Varas, Chile.

2010

97. Sánchez, R., González, V., Gómez, D., C. Gallardo-Escárate & L. Cárdenas. (2010). Generación de marcadores moleculares para caracterizar diversidad genética funcional en el loco. IV reunión Binacional de Ecología, 8 al 13 de agosto 2010. UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

96. Muñoz, N. Pilar Haye & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Filogeografía comparada de las jaibas explotadas Cancer edwardsii y Homalaspis plana en la costa de Chile. IV reunión Binacional de Ecología, 8 al 13 de agosto 2010. UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

95. Fuentealba, G., L. Cárdenas & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Dispersión larval vs. flujo genético en gastrópodos murícidos de la Costa Sureste del Pacífico. IV reunión Binacional de Ecología, 8 al 13 de agosto 2010. UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

94. Segovia, N., P. Haye & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Barcoding de crustáceos comerciales de Chile y trazabilidad de productos comerciales: potencial herramienta de manejo y conservación. IV reunión Binacional de Ecología, 8 al 13 de agosto 2010. UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

93. Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., G. Amar-Basulto & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Hybridization between Haliotis rufescens and H. discus hannai: a new abalone hybrid for the Chilean aquaculture? III International Aquaculture Congress, 22-26 november 2010, Viña del Mar, Chile.

92. Aguilar-Espinoza, A & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Characterization of EST-SSR markers in Haliotis rufescens from heterologous sequences. III International Aquaculture Congress, 22-26 november 2010, Viña del Mar, Chile.

91. Núñez-Acuña, G., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., P. Haye-Molina & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Analysis of gene expression patterns in Mytilus chilensis in aquaculture zones from Southern Chile. III International Aquaculture Congress, 22-26 november 2010, Viña del Mar, Chile.

90. Prieto-Araya, P, P. Haye & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Development of DNA mini-barcode for traceability of commercial bivalves. III International Aquaculture Congress, 22-26 november 2010, Viña del Mar, Chile.

89. Rivas, P & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Characterization of myostatin gene in the Northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819). III International Aquaculture Congress, 22-26 november 2010, Viña del Mar, Chile.

88. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V & C. Gallardo-Escárate. In silico transcriptome analysis in reproductive tissue of red abalone (H. rufescens) by high throughput sequencing. III International Aquaculture Congress, 22-26 november 2010, Viña del Mar, Chile.

2009

87. Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Aproximaciones genéticas en híbridos interespecíficos de abalón, Haliotis rufescens x H.discus hannai. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana- Cuba.

86. Amar, G., Lafarga, F., Iturra, P & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “Análisis Citogenético-Molecular del Híbrido interespecífico entre Haliotis rufescens y H. discus hannai”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana-Cuba.

85. Valenzuela-Bustamante, M., Ferrada, S., R. Galleguillos & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “Caracterización de loci microsatélite en locate, Thais chocolata (gastropoda: Muricidae)”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana- Cuba.

84.Valenzuela-Bustamante, M., G. Amar-Basulto & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “Caracterización molecular y ocalización de cluster ribosomal 5s en Choromytilus choros”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana- Cuba.

83.Amar-Basulto, G. M. Valenzuela-Bustamante, P. Prieto-Araya & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “Hibridación In Situ fluorescente (FISH) sobre genes ribosomales 18s y 5s en Choromytilus Chorus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana-Cuba.

82.Nuñez-Acuña, G., Castillo-Lara, A. & C. Gallardo-Escárate. “Análisis de expresión del gen HSP70 en híbrido entre Haliotis rufescens y Haliotis discus hannai expuestos a estrés térmico”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana-Cuba.

81.Lafarga de la Cruz, F., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis genético de híbridos entre abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens) y Japonés (Haliotis discus hannai) producidos artificialmente en Chile”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana-Cuba.

80.Lafarga de la Cruz, F., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis parental en híbridos inter-específicos entre Haliotis rufescens y H. discus hannai, mediante marcadores microsatélites”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana-Cuba.

79.Lafarga de la Cruz, F., Agulera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Variabilidad genética en poblaciones de cultivo de Haliotis rufescens en Chile: una aproximación basada en microsatélites heterólogos”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana-Cuba.

78.Aguilera-Muñoz F., Prieto-Araya P., Haye P. & Gallardo-Escárate C. “Aislación y Caracterización de loci microsatélites en el ostión del norte Argopecten Purpuratus (Bivalvia: Pectinidae)”. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana-Cuba.

77.Prieto-Araya P, Aguilera-Muñoz F, Valenzuela-Bustamante M, Haye P.& Gallardo-Escárate C. “DNA Barcoding: ¿Una herramienta potencial para trazabilidad en acuicultura?. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009, Habana-Cuba.

76.Castillo-Lara, A., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Nuñez-Acuña, G. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis de expresión de catalasa y superoxido dismutasa en Haliotis rufescens expuestos a estrés oxidativo térmico. Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009. Habana-Cuba.

75.Salinas-Clarot, K., Gutiérrez, A., Forttes-Gomez, D. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Patrones de expresión de miostatina en abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens). Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009. Habana-Cuba.

74.Gutiérrez, A., Forttes-Gomez, D., Salinas-Clarot, K. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis de patrones de expresión de genes relacionados con la maduración sexual en abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens). Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009. Habana-Cuba.

73.Castillo-Sepulveda, E. & Gallado-Escárate, C. “Desarrollo de micro aspersión de alimento formulado para el asentamiento larval de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens). Congreso COLACMAR, 26-30 October 2009. Habana-Cuba.

72.Forttes, D., Gutierrez, A., Salinas-Clarot, K., Uribe, E. A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Clonación de promotor de actina y construcción de un nuevo vector de expresión en abalón rojo, Haliotis rufescens”. XLII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 21-23 October 2009, Hotel El Dorado, Concepción-Chile.

71.Gutierrez, A., Forttes,D., Salinas-Clarot, K., Gallardo-Escárate, C., “Análisis de patrones de expresión de genes relacionados con la maduración sexual en abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens”. XLII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 21-23 October 2009, Hotel El Dorado, Concepción-Chile.

70.Castillo-Lara, A., Valenzuela-Muñoz,V., Núñez-Acuña, G., Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis de expresión de catalasa y superoxido dismutasa en Haliotis rufescens expuestos a estrés oxidativo y térmico”. XLII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 21-23 October 2009, Hotel El Dorado, Concepción-Chile.

69.Núñez-Acuña, G., Castillo-Lara, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis de expresión del gen HSP70 en híbrido entre Haliotis rufescens y Haliotis discus hannai, expuestos a estrés térmico”. XLII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 21-23 October 2009, Hotel El Dorado, Concepción-Chile.

68.Amar, G., Lafarga, F., Iturra, P., Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis citogenético molecular del híbrido interespecífico entre Haliotis rufescens y Haliotis discus hannai”. XLII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. 21-23 October 2009, Hotel El Dorado, Concepción-Chile.

67.Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Gallardo-Escárate, C., A. Astuya & A. Uribe. “Clonamiento, expresión y purificación de la proteína espermática lisina de abalón rojo (H. rufescens) y sus potenciales usos en acuicultura. Congreso XXXII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. 22 -25 Septiembre 2009. Termas de Chillan-Chile.

66.Gutierrez, A., Uribe, E. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis de patrones de expresión de genes relacionados con la maduración sexual en Haliotis rufescens. XXXII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Chile. 22 -25 Septiembre 2009. Termas de Chillan-Chile.

65.Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escarate, C. “Genetic análisis of an artificially produced hibrid abalone (Haliotis rufescens x H. discus hannai) in Chile”. 7th International Abalone Symposium, 19-24 July 2009. Pattaya – Tailandia.

64.Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escarate, C. “Genetic variability in cultured populations of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) in Chile: An approach base don heterologous microsatellites. 7th International Abalone Symposium, 19-24 July 2009. Pattaya – Tailandia.

63.Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Mendoza-Porras, O., Prieto-Araya, P., Gallardo-Escárate, C. & Del Rio-Portilla, MA. “Molecular tools for genetic traceability in abalone species”. 42 Annual Meeting of the Western Socity of Malacologists, 23-27 Junio 2009. Fullerton California-Estados Unidos.

62.Mendoza-Porras, O., Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Prieto-Araya, P., Gallardo-Escárate, C. & Del Río-Portilla, MA. Genetic polymorphism in Mexican Haliotidae using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) as a tool in treceability assays”. 7th International Abalone Symposium, 19-24 July 2009. Pattaya – Tailandia.

61.Mendoza-Porras, O., Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Prieto-Araya, P., Gallardo-Escárate, C. & Del Río-Portilla, MA. “Genetic trazability: a feasible tool for Mexican abalone”. 42 Annual Meeting of the Western Socity of Malacologists, 23-27 Junio 2009. Fullerton California-Estados Unidos.

60.Amar-Basulto, G., Valenzuela-Bustamante, M., Prieto-Araya, P. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Hibridación in situ fluorescente (FISH) sobre genes ribosomales 18s y 5s en Choromytilus choros (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). XXIX Congreso Ciencias del Mar, 25-28 Mayo 2009. Concepción-Chile.

59.Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Uribe, E., Astuya, A. & Gallardo-Escarate, C. “Clonamiento de la proteína espermática Lisina de abalon rojo (H. rufescens). XXIX Congreso Ciencias del Mar, 25-28 Mayo 2009. Concepción-Chile.

58.Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis genético de abalones híbridos entre abalón rojo (H.rufescens) y japones (H.discua hannai) producidos artificialmente en Chile. XXIX Congreso Ciencias del Mar, 25-28 Mayo 2009.Concepción-Chile.

57.Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escarate, C. “Variabilidad genética en poblaciones de cultivo de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens) en Chile”. XXIX Congreso Ciencias del Mar, 25-28 Mayo 2009. Concepción-Chile.

56.Prieto-Araya, P., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Relaciones filogenéticas del género Fissurella (Mollusca: Vestigastropoda) en las costas de Chile mediante análisis de ADNmt 16s, COI y región ITS. II Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura. 7-9 de Enero 2009. Temuco-Chile.

55.P.Costa-Venegas, C., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. “Análisis de variabilidad genética en poblaciones de cultivo de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens), mediante marcadores PCR-ISSR. II Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura. 7-9 de Enero 2009. Temuco-Chile.

54.Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Filogenia molecular de la Familia Mytilidae en Chile basada en secuencias de ADNmt (16s, COI) y espaciadores internos transcritos. II Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, 7 al 9 de Enero 2009, Temuco, Chile.

53.Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Agujera-Muñoz, F., Perone-Millar, C. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Amplificación cruzada de loci microsatélite en abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens) obtenidos mediante partidores heterologos. II Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, 7 al 9 de Enero 2009, Temuco, Chile.

52.Gallardo-Escárate, C., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Amar, G., Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Valenzuela, V. & Astuya, A. “Biotecnología aplicada al desarrollo de un nuevo híbrido de abalón: Haliotis rufescens x H: discus hannai. II Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura.7-9 de Enero 2009. Temuco-Chile.

51.Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Uribe, A., Astuya, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Utilización de proteína espermática Lisina como herramienta biotecnológica en la fecundación in vitro de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens). II Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, 7 al 9 de Enero 2009, Temuco, Chile.

50.Gallardo-Escárate, C. Haliotis rufescens x H. discus hannai: Biotecnología aplicada al desarrollo de un nuevo híbrido de abalón. C. II Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, 7 al 9 de Enero 2009, Temuco, Chile.

2008

49. Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F. & Gallardo-Escarate, C. Filogenia molecular de la Familia Mytilidae en Chile basada en secuencias de ADNmt (16s, COI) y espaciadores internos transcritos. Biotecnología Habana 2008, AgroBiotecnología: Nuevos enfoques ante grandes retos. 30 de Noviembre al 05 Diciembre 2008, Habana, Cuba.

48. Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Agujera-Muñoz, F., Perone-Millar, C. & Gallardo-Escarate, C. Amplificación cruzada de loci microsatélite en abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens) obtenidos mediante partidores heterologos. Biotecnología Habana 2008, AgroBiotecnología: Nuevos enfoques ante grandes retos. 30 de Noviembre al 05 Diciembre 2008, Habana, Cuba.

47. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Uribe, A., Astuya, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Utilización de proteína espermática Lisina como herramienta biotecnológica en la fecundación in vitro de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens). Biotecnología Habana 2008, AgroBiotecnología: Nuevos enfoques ante grandes retos. 30 de Noviembre al 05 Diciembre 2008, Habana, Cuba.

46. Aguilera-Muñoz, F., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Filogenia molecular de la Familia Mytilidae en Chile basada en secuencias de ADNmt (16s, COI) y espaciadores internos transcritos. XLI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile, 26-29 November 2008, Pucón – Chile.

45. Prieto-Araya, P., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Relación filogenética del género Fissurella (Mollusca: Vestigastropoda) en las costas de Chile, mediante análisis de ADNr 16s, COI y Región ITS. XLI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile, 26-29 November 2008, Pucón – Chile.

44. Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Agujera-Muñoz, F., Perone-Millar, C. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Amplificación cruzada de loci microsatélite en abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens) obtenidos mediante partidores heterologos. XLI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile, 26-29 November 2008, Pucón – Chile.

43. Valenzuela-Bustamante, M., Gallardo-Escárate, C. & Dupré, E. Integridad genómica y motilidad espermática en abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens) expuestos a diferentes crioprotectantes. XLI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile, 26-29 November 2008, Pucón – Chile.

42. Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Uribe, A., Astuya, A., Gallardo-Escárate, C. Utilización de proteína espermática Lisina como herramienta biotecnológica en la fecundación in vitro de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens). XLI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile, 26-29 November 2008, Pucón – Chile.

41. Costa-Venegas, C., Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Análisis de variabilidad genética en poblaciones de cultivo de abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens, mediante marcadores PCR-ISSR. XLI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile, 26-29 November 2008, Pucón – Chile.

40. Aguilera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Diseño de partidores específicos para la amplificación de los intrones ITS1 e ITS2 en especies de gastrópodos de importancia comercial en Chile. Mayo 26-30, 2008. XXVIII Congreso de Ciencias del Mar. Hotel Sheraton – Viña del Mar, Chile.

39. Agujera-Muñoz, F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Utilización de secuencias parciales de genes ADN COI, 16s y región ribosomal ITS – 5.8s – ITS2 para trazabilidad genética de gastrópodos de importancia comercial en Chile. Mayo 26-30, 2008. XXVIII Congreso de Ciencias del Mar. Hotel Sheraton – Viña del Mar, Chile.

38. Perone-Millar,C., Aguilera-Muñoz,F., LaFarga,F. & Gallardo-Escárate, C. Caracterización de loci microsatélites con amplificación cruzada en Haliotis rufescens y Haliotis discus hannai Mayo 26-30, 2008. XXVIII Congreso de Ciencias del Mar. Hotel Sheraton – Viña del Mar, Chile.

37. Gallardo-Escárate, C. Haliotis rufescens x H. discus hannai: Biotecnología aplicada al desarrollo de un nuevo híbrido de abalón. Mayo 26-30, 2008. XXVIII Congreso de Ciencias del Mar. Hotel Sheraton – Viña del Mar, Chile.

2007

36. Gallardo-Escárate, C., C. D’Ottone, Felipe Aguilera & M. Á. del Río Portilla. Jurel tipo salmón v/s loco tipo abalón: marcadores de ADN como una herramienta para la identificación de Haliotis. November 07-09, 2007. XL Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Balneario Tomé – Concepción, Chile.

35. LaFarga, F., Gallardo-Escárate, C., A. Santelices, Y. Defranchi, L. Ávalos, C. Alvarez & E. Dupré. Evaluación de integridad genómica en espermatozoides de moluscos expuestos a H2O2 mediante ensayo cometa. November 07-09, 2007. XL Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Balneario Tomé – Concepción, Chile.

34. Aguilera, F., V. Faúndez & C. Gallardo-Escárate.. Identificación especie-específica en moluscos gastrópodos de importancia comercial mediante PCR-RFLP de citocromo oxidasa I. November 07-09, 2007. XL Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Balneario Tomé – Concepción, Chile.

33. D’Ottone, C., Gallardo-Escárate, C., V. Faúndez & M. Á. del Río Portilla. Utilización de FINS (forensically informative nucleotide sequencing) para trazabilidad genética molecular: Haliotis como un caso de estudio. November 07-09, 2007. XL Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Balneario Tomé – Concepción, Chile.

32. Gallardo-Escárate, C., C. D’Ottone, Felipe Aguilera, Alberto Miranda & M. Á. del Río Portilla. Jurel tipo salmón v/s loco tipo abalón: marcadores de ADN como una herramienta para la identificación de Haliotis. November 07-09, 2007. XL Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Balneario Tomé – Concepción, Chile.

31. LaFarga, F., Gallardo-Escárate, C., A. Santelices, Y. Defranchi, L. Ávalos, C. Alvarez & E. Dupré. Evaluación de integridad genómica en espermatozoides de moluscos expuestos a H2O2 mediante ensayo cometa. Septiembre 12-14, 2007. 1er Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, Coquimbo, Chile.

30. Aguilera, F., V. Faúndez & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Identificación especie-específica en moluscos gastrópodos de importancia comercial mediante PCR-RFLP de citocromo oxidasa I. Septiembre 12-14, 2007. 1er Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, Coquimbo, Chile.

29. D’Ottone, C., Gallardo-Escárate, C., V. Faúndez & M. Á. del Río Portilla. Utilización de FINS (forensically informative nucleotide sequencing) para trazabilidad genética molecular: Haliotis como un caso de estudio. Septiembre 12-14, 2007. 1er Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, Coquimbo, Chile.

28. Miranda, A., C. Gallardo-Escárate and M. A. del Río-Portilla. July 25-28, 2007. Species identification of canned “abalone” using FINS (Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing). 40th annual meeting of the Western Society of Malacologists, La Paz, Baja California Sur, México.

2006

27. Gallardo, J., Gallardo-Escárate, C., C. Palma-Rojas y E. von Brand. Inducción a triploidía de meiosis I en el ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus mediante 6-DMAP. November 1-3, 2006. XXXIX Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Viña del Mar, Chile.

26. Goldstein, J., Gallardo-Escárate, C., C. Palma-Rojas y E. von Brand. Cariotipo cuantitativo y determinación de tamaño genómico en el chorito Semimytilus algosus Gould (1850). November 1-3, 2006. XXXIX Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Viña del Mar, Chile.

25. von Brand, E., Lohrmann, K., C. Gallardo-Escárate & C. Palma – Rojas. Effect of chromosome manipulation on reproduction in scallops. November 6-9, 2006. Physiological aspects of reproduction and nutrition in molluscs. La Paz, México.

24. Goldstein-Vásquez, J., C. Gallardo-Escárate & M. Thiel. Identificación de crustáceos decápodo mediante correlación digital de patrones de difracción. Mayo 22-26, 2006. XXVI Congreso de Ciencias del Mar. Iquique, Chile.

23. Araya, C., C. Palma-Rojas, C. Gallardo-Escárate, E. von Brand & G. Amar. El Cariotipo de Ensis macha (Heterodonta: Veneroidae: Pharidae). Mayo 22-26, 2006. XXVI Congreso de Ciencias del Mar. Iquique, Chile.

22. Ávalos, L., Merino, G., C. Gallardo-Escárate & Elisabeth von Brand. Análisis de crecimiento y mortalidad de ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus inducidos a triploidía en dos sistemas de recirculación. Mayo 22-26, 2006. XXVI Congreso de Ciencias del Mar. Iquique, Chile.

21. Gallardo-Escárate, C., E. von Brand Skopnik and M. Á. del Río-Portilla. Karyotype composition in three California abalones and their relationship with genome size: an image analysis approach. Febrero 19-24, 2006. VI International Abalone Symposium. Puerto Varas, Chile.

2005

20. Gallardo-Escárate, C., von Brand, E. C. Palma-Rojas & G. Amar. Análisis de contenido de ADN cromosómico en el abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens mediante análisis de imágenes fluorescentes. November 23-25, 2005. XXXVIII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Puerto Varas, Chile.

19. Gallardo-Escárate, C. Variación de la composición cariotípica y tamaño genómico en tres especies de abalón de la costa de California. November 23-25, 2005. XXXVIII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Puerto Varas, Chile.

18. Palma-rojas, C., Araya, J. M., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Tarifeño, E., Lépez, I., E. von Brand & G. Amar. Citogenética comparativa de Mytilus sp, M. chilensis, M. galloproviancialis, M. edulis y Choromytilus chorus. November 23-25, 2005. XXXVIII Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Genética de Chile. Puerto Varas, Chile.

17. Gallardo-Escárate, C., J. Álvarez-Borrego & M. Á. del Río-Portilla. DAPI-fluorescent fading: a problem in microscopy or a way to measure nuclear DNA content? Agosto 21-26, 2005. ICO2005. Changchun, China.

16. Álvarez-Borrego, J., Kober, V., Gallardo-Escárate, C., Chávez-Sánchez, M. C., E. Fájer-Ávila & M. A. Bueno. “Fusion Algorithm For Color Microbiological Organisms Images In Automatized Microscopes”. Agosto 21-26, 2005. ICO2005. Changchun, China.

15. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego, J., E. von Brand-Skopnik & M. Á. del Río Portilla. Genome size estimation in two populations of the northern Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus, using fluoresce image analysis. Mayo 9-13, 2005. The Annual International Meeting of the World Aquaculture Society. Bali International Convention Center, Nusa Dua, Bali Indonesia.

14. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego, J., Bueno-Ibarra, M. A. M. Á. del Río Portilla & E. von Brand-Skopnik. Analysis of chromosomal DNA content in Pacific red abalone Haliotis rufescens by fluorescence image analysis. Mayo 9-13, 2005. The Annual International Meeting of the World Aquaculture Society. Bali International Convention Center, Nusa Dua, Bali Indonesia.

13. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego, J., del Río Portilla, M. Á., Cross, I., A. Merlo & L. Rebordinos. Karyotype analysis and chromosomal localization by FISH rDNA, telomeric (TTAGGG)n and (GATA)n repeats in Haliotis fulgens (Archaeogastropoda: Haliotidae). Mayo 9-13, 2005. The Annual International Meeting of the World Aquaculture Society. Bali International Convention Center, Nusa Dua, Bali Indonesia.

2004

12. Álvarez-Borrego, J., Gallardo-Escárate, C., del Río-Portilla, M. Á., Kober, V., Rodríguez-Santiago, M. A., Mouriño-Pérez, R. R., Castro-Longoria, E., Bueno-Ibarra, M., Chávez-Sánchez & Fájer-Ávila. E. J. Septiembre 12-13, 2004. Procesado de Imágenes de Microorganismos. IV Simposio Óptica en la Industria. Ensenada, Baja California, México.

11. Gallardo-Escárate, C., J. Álvarez Borrego & M. Á. del Río Portilla. Junio 24-28, 2004. A new method for genome size estimation in Haliotis rufescens (Archaeogastropoda: Haliotidae) using DAPI-fluorescence fading. 37th annual meeting of the Western Society of Malacologists, Ensenada, Baja California, México.

10. M. Á. del Río Portilla, M. Aguilar Juárez, Gallardo-Escárate, C., M. Vivanco Aranda & A. Licona Chávez. Junio 24-28, 2004. Genetic advancements on cultured abalone in Baja California. 37th annual meeting of the Western Society of Malacologists, Ensenada, Baja California, México.

9. von Brand, E., Palma-Rojas, C., C. Gallardo-Escárate & G. Amar. Mayo 17-20, 2004. El uso de análisis de imágenes para determinar los niveles de ploidía en el ostión del Norte, Argopecten purpuratus. XXIV Congreso de Ciencias del Mar, Coquimbo – Chile.

8. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego, J., M. Á. del Río Portilla & V. Kober. Mayo 1-5, 2004. Quantitative Karyotype in Pacific Red Abalone Haliotis rufescens, Using Image Analysis. The Annual International Meeting of the World Aquaculture Society 2004. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

7. von Brand, E., Palma-Rojas, C., C. Gallardo-Escárate & G. Amar. 17-20, 2004. “Use of image analysis to determine ploidy levels in Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus”. Aquaculture 2004. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

2003

6. Gallardo-Escárate, C., Álvarez-Borrego J., V. Kober & M. A. del Río-Portilla. 2003. Análisis cariológico en abulón rojo del Pacífico, Haliotis rufescens mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes. XXIII Congreso de Ciencias del Mar, Punta Arenas – Chile.

5. Castro, E., Álvarez-Borrego, J., Kober, V., Rodríguez, A & C.Gallardo-Escárate. 2003. Identification of species of copepods using a correlation method invariant to position and rotation. XXIII Congreso de Ciencias del Mar, Punta Arenas – Chile.

4. Gallardo-Escárate, C., J. Álvarez-Borrego & V. Kober. 2003. Identificación de cromosomas homólogos mediante correlación digital de patrones de difracción. XLVI Congreso Nacional de la SMF y XVI Congreso de la AMO. Mérida – México.

2002

3. Lohrmann, K., von Brand, E & C. Gallardo-Escárate. 2002. Gonadal Maturation of triploid scallops Argopecten purpuratus Lamarck, 1819. 94 Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries Association, Mystic Ct., USA, p. 75.

2000

2. Gallardo-Escárate, C & K. Lohrmann, 2000. Efecto Histopatológico producido por el tributilestaño (TBT) en el chorito, Mytilus edulis chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). XX Congreso de Ciencias del Mar, Concepción – Chile.

1999

1. Gallardo-Escárate, C & K. Lohrmann, 1999. Estudio preliminar de células primordiales y desarrollo gonadal en Semimytilus algosus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). IV Congreso Latinoamericano de Malacología (IV CLAMA), Coquimbo, Chile, p.92.

RNA-Seq is a newly developed method to obtain transcriptome profiles from cDNA libraries. This approach uses massive sequencing technologies and high throughput sequencing from different platforms NGS as pyrosequencing 454, Illumina and PGM. Studies using this method have already altered our view of the magnitude and complexity of biological processes in eukaryotes and especially in marine organisms. RNA-Seq also provides a much more accurate measurement of transcript levels and other variants thereof as microarray methods. The LBGA currently develops transcriptomic projects of relevant species for aquaculture in Chile.

...

Caligus Rogercresseyi, is an ectoparasite sea lice species that affects 99% of salmon farming centers in Chile. One of the main problems for the integrated control of sea lice is the lack of knowledge at a genomic level and specifically during the larval and adult stages of this species of copepod. Our research group has initiated a project genome sequencing C. rogercresseyi from the larval nauplius stages, copepodito, chalimus, and male and female adults. To date they have generated more than 400 millions of readings 8 developing stages. Such information has enabled the identification of candidate genes and high resolution molecular markers.

...

The Salmón del Atlántico or Salmo Salar, is one of the most famous salmon species worldwide and currently represents one of the biggest productions of salmon industry in Chile. Una de las mayores problemáticas en la acuicultura de salmones son las enfermedades generadas por los distintos patógenos tanto de origen viral como bacteriano. This way, the understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses of cultured fish from a genomic perspective is a priority for the development of sustainable aquaculture. Our laboratory is currently generating information from transcriptomic experiments challenge against P. salmonis e ISAV.

...

Mytilus Chilensis, is a very important species in Chile on an ecological and commercial level . In the latter area, there are several gaps for national aquaculture around this endemic resource. Among them, there is lack of information about source-sink dynamics between populations and patterns of genetic connectivity. In addition, there is little knowledge about molecular biological processes related to immune response, growth and reproduction. In this context, our research group has recently generated a cDNA library using a platform HiSeq 2000 of illumina. The EST generated database reaches 800 millon reads, equivalent to 80 Gbases of genetic information.

...

Haliotis Rufescens, Abalón Rojo. This vestigasthropod mollusc species has been one of the main models of studies for the LBGA. However, the genomic knowledge of the species is scarce. In this context, our group has developed the first pyrosequencing 454 transcriptome from reproductive tissue. In this study we have identified and characterized several genes involved in biological processes such as growth, reproduction and immunity. Now, the LBGA is developing a new cDNA library for muscle growth and color (pie).

...

Concholepas Concholepas, this endemic species from the coasts of Chile and Peru known as "loco" is one of the benthic resources of higher socio-economic importance. Climatic events such as El Niño and resource exploitation have generated dramatic declines in population size. Our laboratory is currently developing SNP type markers from pyrosequencing 454 and candidate genes. This information will allow us to conduct studies of population connectivity (genetic flow) and genetic structure. In addition, transcriptomics information has been used to characterize the molecular level candidate genes involved in innate immunity, growth and tissue regeneration.

...

Tegula Atra it's in intertidal environments associated with macroalgae as Lessonia nigrescens sp and has been described as one of the most abundant and frequent benthic herbivores rocky environments (inter and subtidal) exposed on northern Chile. Our laboratory is located in the transcriptome characterization 5 located in the North of Chile and its temporary evaluation during the summer and winter populations, respectively . This sequencing effort is part of the FONDECYT project 1120896.

...

Pyura Chilensis, this kind of urocordado of Ascidiacea class, it was considered a kind of ecological importance, for its great biodiversity in their aggregations and economic importance as a resource extraction by artisanal fishermen. Now, our group participates in the development of a draft RNA-seq for P. chilensis in different towns along the coast of Chile. The research is led by Dr.. Pilar Haye from the Molecular Diversity Laboratory (Ladimo) (https://sites.google.com/a/ucn.cl/phaye/laboratorio-de-diversidad-molecular) of the Universidad Católica del Norte.

...

Loxechinus Albus, is a kind of hedgehog highly valued in international markets. Currently our laboratory in collaboration with Dr.. Leyla Cárdenas form the Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas (Universidad Austral de Chile), has developed a pyrosequencing 454 for this species. Dr. Cárdenas in charge of research is developing DNA markers to characterize genetic level different natural hedgehog populations to assess the effects of repopulation in handling areas.

...

Mesodesma Donacium, this bivalve mollusk known as "macha" has a great socio-economic importance and export as gourmet product. Its high value has led to overexploitation. The LBGA has developed a run pyrosequencing 454, obtaining more than 190.000 ESTs. From which numerous candidate genes and DNA markers have been identified . In this point, our group has described the first microsatellites and SNPs for this species.

...

Artemia Salina is a kind of crustacean branquiopod own Anostraca order brackish inland and cosmopolitan distribution. Our laboratory in collaboration with Dr.. Gonzalo Gajardo University of Lagos is in the preparation of a cDNA library for further massive sequencing. We hope to have genomic data in the coming months of this interesting extremophile species.

International Seminar

“Massive next-generation sequencing (NGS): a functional look to the immune response of marine species in aquaculture”

March 2014

First international course

“Marine Genomics: from ecology to biotechnology”

October 2011

Postgraduate course

“Advanced Topics in relevant pathogens in the Chilean salmon culture: an interdisciplinary look”

November 2013

Theorical-practical advanced course

“Genomic and proteomic tools applied to the study of aquatic organisms”

July 2011